In business sense, communication is the means by which people in organization exchange views and information regarding the operations of an enterprise or business. Communication takes place at all levels in the organization both among and between the executives, managers, personnel, supervisors foremen and employers. Communication process is continuously in action, conveying information, ideas of individuals. Communication affects all aspects of management since none of them can be performed without proper or effective co-ordination and linking of communication (little, 1970).
Communication has been defined variously by different scholars. But whatever way it is defined, there are four basic things involved which are message, sender, receiver and feedback. (Iloelunachi, 2008). In the light of this (Eyne, 1983) defined communication as not just the giving of information, it is giving of understandable information, receiving and understanding the message. Communication is transferring of message from one party to another so that it can be understood and acted upon. William Scoth, in his organization theory defined communication as a process which involves replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose if eliciting actions which will accomplish organizational goals. The William’s Scoth’s definition says that the purpose of management and organization are simply to decide and to achieve the purpose and these purposes requires practice of least four functions which are planning, organizing, directing, motivating and controlling. Organization must develop a perfect communication process through which they reach other resources in the company. (Flippo, 1963), in this contribution defined communication as the act of influencing others to interpret an idea in the manner intended by the speaker or writer. The means must be between two or more people and also communication should have purpose. The mind of the encoder must be properly understood, if not the main point in the communication will be lost. According to Iloelunachi (2008), communication is defined as act of transmitting information between individuals through agreed system. Effective communication in an organization makes the job attractive and gives room for peaceful co-existence and co-operation. The form which communication takes effects is in attitude of the employees and the degree at which they understand and support management policies.
In all organizational activities and business, management is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives effectively and efficiently (Nwandu, 2010). It comprises planning and organizing, staffing, directing, controlling and organization or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Management, in as much as a group and a process, is an organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting objective, managing resources, developing the human and financial aspects needed to achieve objectives and measuring results. Managing also includes recording and storing facts and information for later use or for others within the organization. Management as a group of people is those who steer an organization towards meeting its objectives. Its functions are not limited to managers and supervisors alone. Every member of the organization has some management and reporting functions as part of their jobs.
Organization is a stable system of individuals, who work together to achieve a goal through a hierarchy of rank and division of labor, common goal (Agbo et al, 2007). Every organization depends for its daily operation on intricate communication network which has proved over the years indispensable. In an organization, one could imagine what would happen if no communication exists for effective management. Organization without effective communication will always neglect feedback, which is the most important aspect of communication process. The effect of poor communication frame work cannot be over emphasized whereby there is a gap in communication, the coordination of the five main functions of management which include planning, organizing, directing, controlling staffing and recruiting will be highly impossible.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A literature in this study will be reviewed under the following sub headings:
1) Concept of communication.
2) Communication process.
3) Channels/methods of communication.
4) Need for effective communication.
5) Barriers to effective communication.
6) Principles of effective/good communication.
2.1CONCEPT OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is transferring thought or message to another party to be understood and acted upon. According to Awoti-Efebo (1999), the concept means imparting or conveying information or knowledge from one person to another. He emphasizes that communication is a mutual exchange of ideas, thought, opinion and facts. There must be presentation and reception of what is sent if communication is to be complete. Richard (2002) Opines that communication is the process of transferring information from one sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is the process by which both the sender and the receiver assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding.
The analysis of this various definition of communication reveals major dimension: content: (what type of thing is communicated, the source/encoder/sender/(to whom) from, (the channel/medium) the decoder/receiver (to who)and the purpose so, this bring about some points about communication it transmits information through accepted medium it is a process that allows organization to exchange information by several methods. Communication requires that all parties understand a common language that is exchanged: auditory means, such as speaking non-verbal, sign language, paralanguage, such as eye contract or the use of writing. But from all these, communication is defined here as a process of transmitting information which could be of message feeling, knowledge from one person to another through agreed system usually for a purpose.
Subscribe to access this work and thousands more