Cultural Factors and Primary School Dropout among Girls in Terekeka State, South Sudan

ABSTRACT 

This research examined the influence of culture on the education of girl-child in primary schools with Specific on school dropout in the community of Terekeka in South Sudan. The objectives of the study were; to examine the cultural that influence girl-child primary school enrolment and drop-out in Terekeka State, to investigate the impacts of cultural practices on school dropout among girls in Terekeka State of South Sudan and to analyze measures taken by the government of South Sudan and None governmental Organizations (NGOs) to address primary school dropout among girls in Terekeka State. The study employed three methods of data collection and these included survey questionnaires, interview guide questions and focus group discussion (FGD). 399 respondents participated in the study and these included primary school teachers, pupils, community leaders, parents and education officials. The study was guided by Social Learning Theory, which argues that learning is a function of observation and often influenced by present within our environment. The study findings revealed that the main cultural leading to girl child school dropout are early marriages, domestic cores, Poverty and societal attitude towards women in general. The study concluded that cultural and practices among the people of Terekeka are an impediment to girl’s education as it facilitates discrimination of girls in education, particularly in primary school enrolment and dropout. Therefore, it calls for a comprehensive approach to addressing the issues of girl education so that the generations of girls to come in Terekeka community will have full access to education and consequently, participate in the socio-economic and political development of the community and South Sudan at large.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ........................................................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL ................................................................................................................................................. ii

DEDICATION............................................................................................................................................. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................................................................................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES........................................................................................................................................ x

LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................... 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS...................................................................................................................... xi

ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................................ xii

CHAPTER ONE...........................................................................................................................................1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................1

1.0 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................1

1.1 Back ground to the Study........................................................................................................................1

1.1.1 Historical Perspective ..........................................................................................................................1

1.1.2 Theoretical Perspective ........................................................................................................................3

1.1.3 Conceptual Perspective ........................................................................................................................4

1.1.4 Contextual Perspective.........................................................................................................................4

1.2 Problem Statement..................................................................................................................................5

1.3 Purpose of the Study ...............................................................................................................................6

1.4 Objectives of the Study...........................................................................................................................6

1.5 Research Questions.................................................................................................................................6

1.6 Scope of the Study ..................................................................................................................................6

1.6.1 Geographical Scope .............................................................................................................................6

1.6.2 Content Scope ......................................................................................................................................7

1.6.3 Time Scope ..........................................................................................................................................7

1.7 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................................................7

1.8 Definition of key terms...........................................................................................................................7

CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................................

LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................................................................9

2.0 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................9

2.1 Conceptual framework............................................................................................................................9

2.2 Theoretical overview ............................................................................................................................10

2.3 Universal obligation on girl’s education...............................................................................................11

2.4 influencing girls school dropout in Terekeka State..............................................................................12

2.4.1Conditions of schools..........................................................................................................................12

2.4.2 Accessibility of school and study requirements.................................................................................13

2.4.3Early marriage.....................................................................................................................................14

2.4.4 Cultural prejudice on girls..................................................................................................................14

2.4.5 Teachers’ attitude at school................................................................................................................16

2.4.6 Household Level ...............................................................................................................................16

2.5 Related Literature..................................................................................................................................16

2.6 Gap in the Literature .............................................................................................................................16

2.7 Statistics of School dropouts in Terekeka................................................

CHAPTER THREE ........................................................................................................................................

METHODOLOGY .....................................................................................................................................19

3.0 Overview...............................................................................................................................................19

3.1 Research area ........................................................................................................................................19

3.2 Research design ....................................................................................................................................19

3.3 Population of the study .........................................................................................................................19

3.4 Sample Size...........................................................................................................................................19

3.5 Data Source...........................................................................................................................................21

3.5.1 Primary Source...................................................................................................................................21

3.5.2 Secondary Source...............................................................................................................................21

3.6 Data Collection methods/ instruments..................................................................................................21

3.6.1 Survey questionnaire..........................................................................................................................21

3.6.2 Interview guide questions..................................................................................................................22

3.6.3 Focus group discussion ......................................................................................................................22

3.7 Validity and Reliability.........................................................................................................................22

3.7.1 Validity ..............................................................................................................................................22

3.7.2 Reliability...........................................................................................................................................23

3.8 Data Collection Procedure ....................................................................................................................24

3.9 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

3.10 Ethical Consideration..........................................................................................................................25

CHAPTER FOUR...........................................................................................................................................

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION ........................................................26

4.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................26

4.2 Demographic Characteristic of the respondents ...................................................................................26

4.2.1 Age of respondents ............................................................................................................................26

4.2.2 Sex of Respondents:...........................................................................................................................27

4.2.3 Education Background of Respondents:............................................................................................27

4.2.4 Cultural Factor Influence on girls school drop-out in the community...............................................28

4.2.4 Importance of Education:...................................................................................................................31

4.2.5 Girl Child Class drop-out...................................................................................................................33

4.2.6 Reasons for Dropping Out: ................................................................................................................35

4.2.7 State of being out of school: ..............................................................................................................37

4.2.6 Parental view on dropouts:.................................................................................................................38

4.2.8 Chance of getting back to School: .....................................................................................................39

4.2.9 Attitude of community towards girl-child education:........................................................................40

4.3 Strategies to reduce girl child school drop-out .....................................................................................42

4.4 Measures employed by the ministry of education in tackling girl child school dropout. .....................44

CHAPTER FIVE ............................................................................................................................................

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ................................................................48

5.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................48

5.2 Discussion of Major Findings...............................................................................................................48

5.2.1 Causes of girl-child school dropout in Terekeka ...............................................................................48

5.2.2 Impact of Cultural Factors on girl-child school dropout....................................................................49

5.2.3 Strategy to reduce Girl child school dropout .....................................................................................51

5.3 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................52

5.4 Key Recommendations.........................................................................................................................53

5.5 Contribution to Knowledge………………………………………………………………………… 54

5.6 Area for further research…………………………………………………………………………….. 55

REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................................................56

APPENDIXES ............................................................................................................................................58

Apendix I: Survey Questionnaire................................................................................................................58

Appendix II: Interview Guide Questions....................................................................................................61

Appendix III: Focus group discussion guide questions for dropout girls.......................................................

Pupils Survey discussion guide...................................................................................................................63

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APA

Consults, E. & FESTO, M (2023). Cultural Factors and Primary School Dropout among Girls in Terekeka State, South Sudan. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/cultural-factors-and-primary-school-dropout-among-girls-in-terekeka-state-south-sudan

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and MALISH FESTO "Cultural Factors and Primary School Dropout among Girls in Terekeka State, South Sudan" Afribary. Afribary, 10 Jan. 2023, https://afribary.com/works/cultural-factors-and-primary-school-dropout-among-girls-in-terekeka-state-south-sudan. Accessed 15 Apr. 2024.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and MALISH FESTO . "Cultural Factors and Primary School Dropout among Girls in Terekeka State, South Sudan". Afribary, Afribary, 10 Jan. 2023. Web. 15 Apr. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/cultural-factors-and-primary-school-dropout-among-girls-in-terekeka-state-south-sudan >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and FESTO, MALISH . "Cultural Factors and Primary School Dropout among Girls in Terekeka State, South Sudan" Afribary (2023). Accessed April 15, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/cultural-factors-and-primary-school-dropout-among-girls-in-terekeka-state-south-sudan