Determination Of Fecal Contamination Status Of Shallow Wells In Dede Division, Migori County, Kenya

ABSTRACT

A shallow well is a hole dug, bored or drilled less than 50M deep to extract water. Contamination of shallow wells with fecal matter presents a grave public health threat in developing countries, such as Kenya, where large numbers of households lack access to clean and safe water supplies and rely on untreated surface water sources or shallow unprotected groundwater for domestic utilization. A report by WHO shows that 1 billion people practice open defecation with nine out of ten of them in rural areas and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is fecally contaminated. In Kenya unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene are the 2nd leading risk factors causing morbidity and mortality at the national and county levels respectively. In Dede Division, 65.5% of households depend on shallow wells for domestic needs and there are rising trends of confirmed cases of fecal-related diseases. The study sought to assess human and technical determinants of fecal contamination status of shallow wells in Dede Division. A cross-sectional study of households using the wells was conducted. Fisher’s formula was then used to calculate the sample size of the heads of households. Since the approximated number of households using shallow wells was 10M) but still tested positive for fecal corliforms, distance (M) from the nearest cattle pen if any with a significant majority of shallow wells testing positive for fecal corliforms, damage or lack of concrete plinth, breaks/cracks on the parapet walls, breaks/cracks in the cover/top slab, breaks in the drainage channels, shallow well covered while not in use and shallow well fenced out respectively. Majority of shallow wells (69%) tested positive for E. Coli, a strong indicator for presence of fecal matter in water, with only 31% testing negative. Common human and technical determinants (risk factors) by and large are functions of fecal contamination status of shallow wells in Dede Division. Efficient protection of shallow wells is a critical pointer to their ground water quality. Households in Dede Division should ensure adequate treatment of shallow wells for fecal contamination before utilization of water from these sources. This can be both at source or household level. They should be sensitized by the relevant authorities on common routes of fecal contamination of shallow well water and safe hygiene and sanitation practices around shallow wells to prevent fecal contamination of the wells. Households using shallow wells in Dede Division should ensure proper sighting and location of latrines in relation to shallow wells to avoid fecal contamination of the wells through leaching. The pit latrines should be sighted down hill the shallow wells and located atleast 10 meters apart.

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APA

ODIWUOR, O (2021). Determination Of Fecal Contamination Status Of Shallow Wells In Dede Division, Migori County, Kenya. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/determination-of-fecal-contamination-status-of-shallow-wells-in-dede-division-migori-county-kenya

MLA 8th

ODIWUOR, OLUOCH "Determination Of Fecal Contamination Status Of Shallow Wells In Dede Division, Migori County, Kenya" Afribary. Afribary, 02 Jun. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/determination-of-fecal-contamination-status-of-shallow-wells-in-dede-division-migori-county-kenya. Accessed 20 May. 2024.

MLA7

ODIWUOR, OLUOCH . "Determination Of Fecal Contamination Status Of Shallow Wells In Dede Division, Migori County, Kenya". Afribary, Afribary, 02 Jun. 2021. Web. 20 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/determination-of-fecal-contamination-status-of-shallow-wells-in-dede-division-migori-county-kenya >.

Chicago

ODIWUOR, OLUOCH . "Determination Of Fecal Contamination Status Of Shallow Wells In Dede Division, Migori County, Kenya" Afribary (2021). Accessed May 20, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/determination-of-fecal-contamination-status-of-shallow-wells-in-dede-division-migori-county-kenya