Information on pesticide residue occurrence in
hive products is scanty or lacking yet it is important so as to safeguard human
health from effects of pesticides. The aim of the study was to identify and
quantify neonicotinoid residues in hive products. The study was undertaken for
6 months between (March-August, 2015) at Kiambu and Nairobi Counties. The
objectives of the study were to find out the pesticides used in the cultivation
of crops, the frequency of use and the concentration of neonicotinoids in honey
and bee bread (pollen).The methodology used was a structured questionnaire
which was used to find out the pesticides used and frequency of their
application. A modified Quick Easy Cheap Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) and liquid
chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to determine the
presence and concentration of neonicotinoids. The Chi-square was used to test
frequency of pesticide application on cultivated crops around the apiaries and
T-test was used to perform a comparison between concentration of residues
detected in honey, pollen and in different landscape structures as well as
making comparisons with European Union Maximum Residue Limits (EU-MRL). The
study results indicated commonly used pesticides are carbamates (32.4%),
pyrethroids (14.6%), neonicotinoids (14.4%), herbicides (15.7%), fungicides
(1.4%), acaricides (5.6%) and organophosphates (14.5%). Further, 26.4% of
respondents used carbaryl carbamates, 13.2% use Karate, 12% thiamethoxam and
7.4% dichlorvos. Regarding frequency of application, 86% of respondents used
the pesticides once every week, 12.5% fortnightly and 1.4% when available.
Chi-square test showed no significant difference in the application frequency
(p>0.05). Honey was contaminated with acetamiprid with the mean levels of
0.41µg/kg.Thiamethoxam concentration in honey ranged from undetectable to
47.8µg/kg in Thika IPM with mean of 19.81µg/kg and standard deviation 24.77.
Concentration of acetamiprid compound ranged from 0.1 ppb in Lari, Gatundu,
Ruiru, Thika, Kikuyu, Karura and Ngong forests to 0.5ppb in Thika IPM. The mean
levels of neonicotinoid concentration in honey were found to be statistically
significant when compared with EU maximum residue limits (50ppb) established
for food products (p=<0.05).
AfroAsia, R (2021). Determination Of Neonicotinoid Residues In Hive Products From Kiambu And Nairobi Counties, Kenya. Afribary.com: Retrieved June 24, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/determination-of-neonicotinoid-residues-in-hive-products-from-kiambu-and-nairobi-counties-kenya
Research, AfroAsia. "Determination Of Neonicotinoid Residues In Hive Products From Kiambu And Nairobi Counties, Kenya" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 06 Jun. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/determination-of-neonicotinoid-residues-in-hive-products-from-kiambu-and-nairobi-counties-kenya . Accessed 24 Jun. 2021.
Research, AfroAsia. "Determination Of Neonicotinoid Residues In Hive Products From Kiambu And Nairobi Counties, Kenya". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 06 Jun. 2021. Web. 24 Jun. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/determination-of-neonicotinoid-residues-in-hive-products-from-kiambu-and-nairobi-counties-kenya >.
Research, AfroAsia. "Determination Of Neonicotinoid Residues In Hive Products From Kiambu And Nairobi Counties, Kenya" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed June 24, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/determination-of-neonicotinoid-residues-in-hive-products-from-kiambu-and-nairobi-counties-kenya