Domestic Violence and Womens Dis-Empowernment in West Point Township-Monrovia, Liberia

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ABSTRACT 

This study was done to establish the impact of domestic violence on women’s disempowerment in West Point Township Monrovia, Liberia. The study objectives were to determine the forms of domestic violence, examine the causes of domestic violence and how domestic violence disempowers women in West Point Township. The study was conducted based on a sequential mixed method design in which both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used. Quantitatively the study used questionnaires administered to 55 women and qualitatively 8 key informant interviews and 4 gender segmented focus group discussions were conducted. The results indicate that beating constituted the highest response on domestic violence with 24%, verbal abuse 20% followed, then abandonment 17%, pushing 11%, stalking 7%, sexual assault 6% and economic violence 6%, rape 4%, marital rape 4% and isolation 4% followed as other forms of violence. The major cause of domestic violence was poverty (55% of the respondents)f followed by cultural beliefs 24%, alcoholism 15% and parenting 7%. The results further show that domestic violence has dis-empowered women in west point in various ways including low self-esteem, dependence, low skills, low self-confidence, and inability to solve problems, trauma, stigma, and job loss. The focus group discussion and key informant guides further show that the forms of domestic violence are majorly verbal abuses and the causes were house hold poverty and cultural issues. It was further established that domestic violence dis-empower women through earnings, education, health and the general social setup. It can be concluded that domestic violence exists in different forms in West point with the major form being physical violence in the form of beating. The study also shows that poverty and cultural barriers are the major causes of domestic violence. The study further shows that domestic violence dis-empowers the women by highly creating dependency on the family and husbands, stigma, trauma, loss of self-confidence and loss of employment. The study recommends that among others that intervention into the family management should be undertaken and the culprits of domestic violence should be apprehended. There is also need to address poverty among women through economic empowerment initiatives so that women become economically independent instead of depending on their male partners.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................. i

DEDICATION................................................................................................................................ ii

APPROVAL ..................................................................................................................................iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................................................... iv

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS....................................................................................... v

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................... ix

LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................................... x

ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................... xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND...................................................... 1

1.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Background of the Study .......................................................................................................... 1

1.2.1 Historical Perspective ............................................................................................................ 1

1.2.2 Theoretical Perspective.......................................................................................................... 2

1.2.3 Conceptual Perspective.......................................................................................................... 3

1.2.4 Contextual Perspective........................................................................................................... 4

1.3 Problem Statement.................................................................................................................... 4

1.4Objectives of the Study.............................................................................................................. 5

1.4.2 Specific Objectives: ............................................................................................................... 5

1.5 Research Questions................................................................................................................... 5

1.7 Scope of the Study .................................................................................................................... 6

1.7Subject Scope............................................................................................................................. 6

1.7.2 Geographical Scope ............................................................................................................... 6

1.6.3 Time Scope ............................................................................................................................ 6

1.8 Significance of the Study.......................................................................................................... 6

1.9 Definition of Terms................................................................................................................... 6

1.10 Conceptual Framework........................................................................................................... 8

CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................ 9

LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................... 9

2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 9

2.2 Theoretical Overview.............................................................................................................. 10

2.4 Forms of Domestic Violence .................................................................................................. 12

2.4.1 Physical Abuse..................................................................................................................... 12

2.4.2 Sexual Abuse ....................................................................................................................... 12

2.4.3 Marital Rape......................................................................................................................... 13

2.4.4 Emotional Abuse.................................................................................................................. 13

2.4.5 Verbal Abuse ....................................................................................................................... 14

2.4.6 Economic Abuse .................................................................................................................. 14

2.5 Causes of Domestic Violence ................................................................................................. 15

2.6 Effects of Domestic Violence on women ............................................................................... 18

2.7 Research Gap .......................................................................................................................... 20

CHAPTER THREE ...................................................................................................................... 22

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................. 22

3.1 Research Design...................................................................................................................... 22

3.2 Study Area .............................................................................................................................. 22

3.3 Study Population..................................................................................................................... 22

3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures................................................................................... 23

3.5 Sampling Procedure ................................................................................................................ 25

3.6 Sources of Data ....................................................................................................................... 25

3.6.1 Primary Data ........................................................................................................................ 25

3.6.2 Secondary Data .................................................................................................................... 25

3.7 Study Methods........................................................................................................................ 26

3.8 Research Instruments.............................................................................................................. 26

3.9 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments............................................................................. 26

3.10 Data Gathering Procedures................................................................................................... 27

3.10.1 Before the Administration of the Questionnaires:............................................................. 27

3.10.2 During the administration of the questionnaires (Quantitative and qualitative): .............. 27

3.10.3 After the Administration of the Questionnaires................................................................. 28

3.11 Data Analysis........................................................................................................................ 28

3.12 Ethical Considerations.......................................................................................................... 28

3.13 Limitations of the Study........................................................................................................ 28

CHAPTER FOUR......................................................................................................................... 30

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS.............................. 30

4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................. 30

4.2 Profile of Respondents............................................................................................................ 30

4.3 Forms of domestic violence in West Point Township, Monrovia, Liberia............................. 32

4.3.1 Experience with Domestic Violence.................................................................................... 32

4.3.2 Where women report domestic violence.............................................................................. 33

4.3.3 Forms of domestic violence among the women in West Point Township, Monrovia......... 34

4.3.4 Whether domestic violence is a problem............................................................................. 36

4.3.5 Encouragement of Domestic Violence Victims................................................................... 37

4.3.6 Threatens or abuse in the household.................................................................................... 38

4.3.7 Responses on the persons that threaten women................................................................... 38

4.3.8 Reasons for the threats on women ....................................................................................... 39

4.4 Causes of domestic violence in West Point Township Monrovia, Liberia............................. 41

4.4.1 Causes of domestic violence in West Point Township Monrovia, Liberia.......................... 41

4.5 Domestic violence dis-empowers women in West Point Township, Monrovia..................... 43

4.5.1 Psycho-social effects of domestic violence on the survivors/victims.................................. 44

4.5.2 Whether domestic violence affect parent-children relationship in your household. ........... 44

4.5.3 How Domestic Violence Affect Women ............................................................................. 45

4.5.4 Domestic Violence and Dependence ................................................................................... 47

4.5.5 How Domestic violence affect self-confidence and Job...................................................... 48

4.5.7: Shows responses on whether the women have experienced Stigma .................................. 49

4.5.7 Community involvement in combating domestic violence ................................................. 50

CHAPTER FIVE .......................................................................................................................... 53

DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................... 53

5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................. 53

5.2 Discussions of Findings.......................................................................................................... 54

5.2.1 Profile of Respondents......................................................................................................... 54

5.2.2 Forms of domestic violence in West Point Township, Monrovia ....................................... 54

5.2.3 Causes of domestic violence in West Point Township, Monrovia ...................................... 55

5.2.4 How domestic violence disempowered women in West Point Monrovia ........................... 56

5.2 Conclusions............................................................................................................................. 57

5.4 Recommendations based on the study findings...................................................................... 57

5.5 Suggestions for further Research .......................................................................................... 58

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 58

APPENDIX 1: RESEARCH TOOLS........................................................................................... 63

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS................................................................ 63

APPENDIX II............................................................................................................................... 69

FOCUS GROUP GUIDE FOR LOCAL COMMUNITY MEMBERS........................................ 69

APPENDIX III.............................................................................................................................. 70

KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEW GUIDE................................................................................. 70

APPENDIX IV: TIME FRAME................................................................................................... 71

APPENDIX V: MAP OF WEST POINT MONROVIA .............................................................. 72

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APA

Consults, E. & WILSON, S (2022). Domestic Violence and Womens Dis-Empowernment in West Point Township-Monrovia, Liberia. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/domestic-violence-and-womens-dis-empowernment-in-west-point-township-monrovia-liberia

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and SOPHIA WILSON "Domestic Violence and Womens Dis-Empowernment in West Point Township-Monrovia, Liberia" Afribary. Afribary, 23 Nov. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/domestic-violence-and-womens-dis-empowernment-in-west-point-township-monrovia-liberia. Accessed 07 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and SOPHIA WILSON . "Domestic Violence and Womens Dis-Empowernment in West Point Township-Monrovia, Liberia". Afribary, Afribary, 23 Nov. 2022. Web. 07 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/domestic-violence-and-womens-dis-empowernment-in-west-point-township-monrovia-liberia >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and WILSON, SOPHIA . "Domestic Violence and Womens Dis-Empowernment in West Point Township-Monrovia, Liberia" Afribary (2022). Accessed December 07, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/domestic-violence-and-womens-dis-empowernment-in-west-point-township-monrovia-liberia