The probability of developing tuberculosis (TB) disease is higher in immune compromised subjects such as
HIV/AIDS patients. Conventional methods of diagnosing TB which include sputum smear microscopy, culture
and chest X-ray have drawbacks and established limitations. The limitations are pronounced in immunocompromised subjects. The consequence of poor diagnosis of TB especially in resources limited environment
like Nigeria contributes to the rising incidence of TB. Introducing immuno detection method using genomic
antigens is priming for early detection of TB. This study was designed to evaluate the available genomic TB
antigens for T-cell stimulation and to explore possibility of improving diagnostic performance in immunocompromised patient by inducing T-cells. The study population includes subjects with active TB only,
HIV+TB, HIV only, subjects with TB contacts and apparently healthy controls. Smear microscopy and culture
were performed on sputum samples obtained. Whole blood cells from suspected TB infected subjects and TB
contacts were incubated with RPMI 1640 and glutamine to provide enriched medium of protein and vitamins
for the T-cells in the blood and fetal calf serum (FCS) to induce T-cells during incubation so as to make the Tcells respond better when stimulated during incubation. Low dosage of 2.5 µg/ml of TB antigens (ESAT6,CFP-10 and ELLI the new TB antigen) obtained from LIONEX Inc. Germany was used to stimulate the Tcells in the whole blood during the 72 hour incubation. Sera obtained after stimulation were used for Interferon
Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) to assess the IFN-γ released during T-cell stimulation. The result of smear
microscopy and culture revealed that even though a high percentage of positivity was obtained from the result
of smear microscopy and culture, some of the positives (20.83%) smear microscopy were negative for culture.
These were part of the drawbacks of high sensitivity and low specificity observed. Result of using TB antigens
for T-cell stimulation showed that ELLI the new antigen was the most immunogenic of the antigens used when
compared with existing ESAT-6 and CFP-10. T-cells performed optimally when induced with 1% FCS and
stimulated with low dose antigen of ELLI and the combined ESAT-6+CFP-10. The inducement of T-cells
improved the diagnosis of TB in HIV subjects that were asymptomatic of TB and individuals at risk especially the previous TB contacts. Sensitivity and specificity of IGRA increased above 80% with the inducement of Tcells. In conclusion, the study attempts to improve TB diagnosis using genomic antigens relative to the
conventional non genomic antigens methods. This approach has the potential to improve detection of TB
subjects using immunodetection technique.
The Public Access, L (2021). Early Tuberculosis Immunodetection Using Genomic Antigens And Inducement Of T-Cells In Hiv+TB Subjects In Lagos, Nigeria.. Afribary.com: Retrieved May 16, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/early-tuberculosis-immunodetection-using-genomic-antigens-and-inducement-of-t-cells-in-hiv-tb-subjects-in-lagos-nigeria
Library, The Public Access. "Early Tuberculosis Immunodetection Using Genomic Antigens And Inducement Of T-Cells In Hiv+TB Subjects In Lagos, Nigeria." Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 03 May. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/early-tuberculosis-immunodetection-using-genomic-antigens-and-inducement-of-t-cells-in-hiv-tb-subjects-in-lagos-nigeria . Accessed 16 May. 2021.
Library, The Public Access. "Early Tuberculosis Immunodetection Using Genomic Antigens And Inducement Of T-Cells In Hiv+TB Subjects In Lagos, Nigeria.". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 03 May. 2021. Web. 16 May. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/early-tuberculosis-immunodetection-using-genomic-antigens-and-inducement-of-t-cells-in-hiv-tb-subjects-in-lagos-nigeria >.
Library, The Public Access. "Early Tuberculosis Immunodetection Using Genomic Antigens And Inducement Of T-Cells In Hiv+TB Subjects In Lagos, Nigeria." Afribary.com (2021). Accessed May 16, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/early-tuberculosis-immunodetection-using-genomic-antigens-and-inducement-of-t-cells-in-hiv-tb-subjects-in-lagos-nigeria