Effect of Natural Cocoa Powder Supplementation on Oxidative Stress And Hematological Indices in Healthy Ghanaian Adults

ABSTRACT

Background: Natural cocoa powder (NCP) has been recognized to possess significant amounts of procyanidin flavonoids, methylxanthines, catechin and epicatechin with healthful effects. Stimulus for this work was to validate claims that NCP was a healthful product best for the aged with cardiovascular health problems and also for daily consumption for all age groups as a preventive measure. Literature review does not show any work done in healthy adult Ghanaians involving the long term supplementation of NCP as a baseline study before further research into disease areas. Several „foreign‟ studies used chocolate due to its more acceptable taste. Aim and objective: To evaluate the long term effect of NCP supplementation on selected oxidative stress makers and hematological indices in healthy adult Ghanaians. Methodology: Seventeen (12 males and 5 females) subjects selected by random sampling from the staff and students of SAHS, Korle-Bu completed the study. NCP was consumed as a beverage twice daily before meals for 12 weeks. pre- and post- supplementation blood draw, anthropometry, hematological indices and analysis with biochemical assays such as advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), vascular cell adhesion molecule1 (VCAM-1), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) was done Results: The mean age of the subjects was 30.8 ± 10.2 years, mean pre- skeletal muscle was 35.18 ± 10.30% and post- skeletal muscle 37.64 ± 8.90%, there was a significant increase (p = 0.031), mean pre- resting metabolism was 1475 ± 270 Kcal and the mean post- resting metabolism was 1530 ± 206 Kcal, this showed significant increase (p = 0.028). The mean preGSH-Px was 1.73 ± 0.18 ng/L and post- GSH-Px 1.96 ± 0.10 ng/L, there was statistically significant increase (p = 0.001). The mean pre- TWBC was 5.36 ± 1.7 x 109 /L and post- TWBC xiv 6.04 ± 2.6 x 109 /L. There was a significant increase (p = 0.031). Mean pre- Hb was 13.48 ± 1.40 g/dl and post- Hb 13.95 ± 1.50 g/dl. There was a significant increase after the supplementation (p = 0.016). Mean pre- Hct was 31.58 ± 9.5% and post- Hct 36.01 ± 7.6%. There was significant increase after the intervention (p = 0.001). Mean WBC differentials (Monocytes (M), Eosinophils (E) & Basophils (B)) the mean pre- M was 5.76 ± 1.40% and post- M 6.51 ± 1.90%. There was a significant increase (p = 0.039). Mean pre- E was 0.97 ± 0.80% and post- E 1.45 ± 1.20%. There was a significant increase after the supplementation (p = 0.005). Mean pre- B was 0.33 ± 0.30% and post- B% 0.46 ± 0.30% which showed significant increase (p = 0.006) respectively. Mean pre- MDA was 0.69 ± 0.10 ng/L and post- MDA 0.64 ± 0.10 ng/L, there was a statistically significant decrease (p = 0.033). Mean overall weight pre- was 66.86 ± 10.61 kg and post-supplementation was 65.19 ± 10.45 kg, showing significant decrease (p = 0.009). Mean pre- BMI was 23.01 ± 3.8 kg/m2 was higher than the mean post- BMI 22.96 ± 3.5 kg/m2 showing a statistically significant decrease (p = 0.006). Mean pre- SBP was 124.53 ± 11.30 mmHg and post- SBP 121.12 ± 9.10 mmHg. There was a significant decrease (p = 0.001). The mean preDBP was 80.12 ± 9.60 mmHg and post- DBP 78.24 ± 9.10 mmHg, there was significant decrease after the 12 weeks supplementation (p = 0.003). Mean pre- MCH was 33.48 ± 12.8 pg and post- MCH 31.42 ± 3.8 pg, there was a significant decrease (p = 0.001). Mean pre- MCHC was 47.66 ± 16.70 g/dl and post- MCHC 40.38 ± 9.60 g/dl. There was a significant decrease after the supplementation (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Long term supplementation with NCP caused significant changes in the anthropometric, hematological indices and biochemical markers. Furthermore, this was accompanied by significant increase in antioxidant levels. Natural cocoa powder therefore xv reduced oxidative stress and improved the biochemical markers and hematological indices. The long term daily consumption is therefore recommended.

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APA

AMEDONU, E (2021). Effect of Natural Cocoa Powder Supplementation on Oxidative Stress And Hematological Indices in Healthy Ghanaian Adults. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-natural-cocoa-powder-supplementation-on-oxidative-stress-and-hematological-indices-in-healthy-ghanaian-adults

MLA 8th

AMEDONU, ELSIE "Effect of Natural Cocoa Powder Supplementation on Oxidative Stress And Hematological Indices in Healthy Ghanaian Adults" Afribary. Afribary, 11 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-natural-cocoa-powder-supplementation-on-oxidative-stress-and-hematological-indices-in-healthy-ghanaian-adults. Accessed 20 May. 2024.

MLA7

AMEDONU, ELSIE . "Effect of Natural Cocoa Powder Supplementation on Oxidative Stress And Hematological Indices in Healthy Ghanaian Adults". Afribary, Afribary, 11 Apr. 2021. Web. 20 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-natural-cocoa-powder-supplementation-on-oxidative-stress-and-hematological-indices-in-healthy-ghanaian-adults >.

Chicago

AMEDONU, ELSIE . "Effect of Natural Cocoa Powder Supplementation on Oxidative Stress And Hematological Indices in Healthy Ghanaian Adults" Afribary (2021). Accessed May 20, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-natural-cocoa-powder-supplementation-on-oxidative-stress-and-hematological-indices-in-healthy-ghanaian-adults

Document Details
ELSIE AMEDONU Field: Physiology Type: Thesis 125 PAGES (25944 WORDS) (pdf)