Effect of Plant Extracts on Some Fungal Pathogens Associated with Groundnut Seeds Grown in Southeastern Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

Groundnut samples collected from commercial markets in South–Eastern Nigerian were examined for seed borne fungi organisms and their level of losses were quantified. Results obtained showed that only about 29% of groundnut seeds were without damage. This high rate of damage is a major factor in low viability of groundnut seeds in South – Eastern Nigeria. From the survey of groundnut seed cultivars, two cultivars: Spanish 205 (nwaerente) and Samnut 21 (Ngwongworo) were observed to be grown in south Eastern Nigeria. In the five states, Aspergillus flavus was the most predominant fungus isolated from both cultivars of groundnut seeds. Pathogenicity test showed that Fusarium spp. had a significant effect on seed emergence, in seed inoculated experiment. On the Transmission test, two pathogens namely Alternaria spp and Fusarium spp were responsible for transimission from seed to germinating seed and seedling. Aqueous extracts of Cymbopogom citratus (lemon grass), Carica papaya (Paw-paw), Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) and Zingiber 0fficinale (Ginger) were tested for their invitro inhibitory activity against the identified fungi. Zingiber officinale at 7.5% and Cymbopogon citratus at 15% concentration gave the best antifungal effect on mycelia growth. The influence of Aspergillus flavus on groundnut seed quality was evaluated by artificial inoculation. The fungal infection reduced protein by 1.35% but increased fat and carbohydrate content of groundnut seeds by 0.62% and 0.86% respectively.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction 1 Justification of the Study 5

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW 7

2.0 Environmental and Soil Requirements of Groundnut 7

2.1 Ecology of Groundnut
2.2. Weeds and Weed Control
2.3 Fertilizer Requirement and Application 2.5 Seeds
2.5 Diseases, insect pests and control
2.6 Insect Pests of Groundnut.
2.7 Batanicals in Disease and Pest Control.

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHOD 20

  1. 3.1  The Study Area 20

  2. 3.2  Sample Collection 20

  3. 3.3  Survey of Groundnut Seed Cultivars Grown In South – Eastern Nigeria. 21

  4. 3.4  Physical Examination of seeds 21

  5. 3.5  Examination of seeds after incubation 21

  6. 3.6  Germination test 22

  7. 3.7  Pathogenicity Test 23

  8. 3.8  Preparation of Innocula 23

  9. 3.9  Collection and Sterilization Of Soil 24

3.10 Seed Inoculation 24

3.11 Transmission of certain pathogenic fungi from seed to seedling 24

3.12 Preparation Of The Plant Aqueous Extract. 30

3.13 PROXIMATE ANALYSIS 32

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 36

4.1 Survey of groundnut seed varieties grown in south – eastern Nigeria. 36

4.2 Physical Examination of Seeds
4.3 Examination of seed after incubation 4.4 Germination test
4.5 Pathogenicity Test

4.5.1 Symptoms of Fusarium oxysporium 49

4.5.2 Symptoms of Rhizoctonia spp 49

4.5.3 Symptoms of Alternaria spp 49

4.6 Fungus transmission from seed to seedling 50

4.7 The effect of crude extracts of Zingiber officinale Carica papaya, Cymbopogun Citratus and Vernonia amygdalina on mycelial growth. 53

4.7.1. Vernonia amydalina

4.7.2 Zingiber officinale

4.7.3 Carica papaya
4.7.4 Cymbopogun citratus 4.8 Proximate Analysis

4.9 Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations 5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendations
References 

 

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APA

The MasterMind, P (2021). Effect of Plant Extracts on Some Fungal Pathogens Associated with Groundnut Seeds Grown in Southeastern Nigeria. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 01, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-plant-extracts-on-some-fungal-pathogens-associated-with-groundnut-seeds-grown-in-southeastern-nigeria

MLA 8th

Project, The MasterMind. "Effect of Plant Extracts on Some Fungal Pathogens Associated with Groundnut Seeds Grown in Southeastern Nigeria" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-plant-extracts-on-some-fungal-pathogens-associated-with-groundnut-seeds-grown-in-southeastern-nigeria . Accessed 01 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

Project, The MasterMind. "Effect of Plant Extracts on Some Fungal Pathogens Associated with Groundnut Seeds Grown in Southeastern Nigeria". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021. Web. 01 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-plant-extracts-on-some-fungal-pathogens-associated-with-groundnut-seeds-grown-in-southeastern-nigeria >.

Chicago

Project, The MasterMind. "Effect of Plant Extracts on Some Fungal Pathogens Associated with Groundnut Seeds Grown in Southeastern Nigeria" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed March 01, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-plant-extracts-on-some-fungal-pathogens-associated-with-groundnut-seeds-grown-in-southeastern-nigeria