ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF EFFLUENT FROM BARIMA FUEL SERVICE CENTER (MALLAM-ACCRA) AND ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT OF SOME FUEL SERVICE STATIONS IN ACCRA-TEMA METROPOLITAN AREAS OF GHANA

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ABSTRACT

City authorities the world over are lamenting on the ever increasing liquid and solid

waste management problems, and are in continuous search for inexpensive and easy

solutions to these waste problems. Ghana, like many other developing countries, in its

effort to controlling these problems enacted an Act (Act 490) through Parliament in 1994,

which charged the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to demand for

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on all developmental projects which are likely

to impact significantly on the environment.

The operation of fiiel service stations happens to be one such projects of concern. Since

not much work has been done on the compliance to this Act, this.study was designed to

monitor a fuel service station to generate data on pollution levels. Subsequently an

environmental audit was conducted on some seventy-five (75) fuel service stations made

up of fifteen each from Mobil, Shell, Elf, Total and Goil oil companies to assess their

compliance to the Act.

The study employed two methods i.e., laboratory analysis and questionnaire

administration. The focus was on fuel service station managers and their attendants. The

physical and laboratory analysis revealed that except for pH, and nitrate concentration all

the parameters determined were well above the EPA permissible levels. The results

showed that the surrounding of the station was polluted indicated by the elevated levels

i

of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Oil/Grease and low Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

T

concentration. There was significant positive and negative correlation between some

parameters, which indicated that the effluent from the Barima Service Station in Accra

has contributed to the pollution of a stream at least within its environs. Other human

activities also contribute.

The Environmental Audit of fuel service stations was scored in percentages. A lowest

best performance score of 50 and a high of 100 were used._ The study revealed that, all

the fuel service stations (100%) of all the marketing companies (Mobil, Shell, Elf, Total

and Goil) dispensed petrol and diesel. Total had the highest of 73.3% for kerosene and

33.3% for Shell being the lowest. Vehicle lubrication was 93.3%, 80%, 73.3%, 66.7%

and 60% for Mobil, Shell, Elf, Goil and Total respectively. Sales of LPG filled cylinders,

73.3%, 73.3%, 60%, 40% and 20% for Mobil, Total, Elf, Shell and Goil respectively.

Most of the enterprises audited had shopping marts and restaurants attached. They were

100%, 100%, 66.7%, 60% and 60% for Mobil, Shell, Elf, Total and Goil respectively.

Washing bay, which is fast becoming a prominent feature in fuel service station design

was 46.7%, 40%, 33.3%, 33.3% and 20% for Shell, Mobil, Elf, Goil and Total.

Pollution control/minimization measures determined revealed the following mean

percentage best performance of 47.73% to 45.17%. Traffic congestion and control

showed mean best performance of 100% to 86.67%. Fire hazards management was

65.96% - 56.31%. Waste management was 100% for all companies. Occupational health

and safety management, 99%-94% and Public participation/perception of enterprise was

93.34%-77.79%. It is evident from the findings that stringent enforcement measures are needed from

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which is the enforcement authority to control

the effluent that operators of fuel service stations release into the environment. Further,

adequate monitoring is required of EPA to determine problems that proponent of fuel

service stations and the public encounter so that they are addressed to avoid operational

conflicts.

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APA

ONWONA-KWAKYE, M (2021). ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF EFFLUENT FROM BARIMA FUEL SERVICE CENTER (MALLAM-ACCRA) AND ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT OF SOME FUEL SERVICE STATIONS IN ACCRA-TEMA METROPOLITAN AREAS OF GHANA. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/environmental-monitoring-of-effluent-from-barima-fuel-service-center-mallam-accra-and-environmental-audit-of-some-fuel-service-stations-in-accra-tema-metropolitan-areas-of-ghana

MLA 8th

ONWONA-KWAKYE, MICHAEL "ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF EFFLUENT FROM BARIMA FUEL SERVICE CENTER (MALLAM-ACCRA) AND ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT OF SOME FUEL SERVICE STATIONS IN ACCRA-TEMA METROPOLITAN AREAS OF GHANA" Afribary. Afribary, 31 Mar. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/environmental-monitoring-of-effluent-from-barima-fuel-service-center-mallam-accra-and-environmental-audit-of-some-fuel-service-stations-in-accra-tema-metropolitan-areas-of-ghana. Accessed 15 Aug. 2022.

MLA7

ONWONA-KWAKYE, MICHAEL . "ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF EFFLUENT FROM BARIMA FUEL SERVICE CENTER (MALLAM-ACCRA) AND ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT OF SOME FUEL SERVICE STATIONS IN ACCRA-TEMA METROPOLITAN AREAS OF GHANA". Afribary, Afribary, 31 Mar. 2021. Web. 15 Aug. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/environmental-monitoring-of-effluent-from-barima-fuel-service-center-mallam-accra-and-environmental-audit-of-some-fuel-service-stations-in-accra-tema-metropolitan-areas-of-ghana >.

Chicago

ONWONA-KWAKYE, MICHAEL . "ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF EFFLUENT FROM BARIMA FUEL SERVICE CENTER (MALLAM-ACCRA) AND ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT OF SOME FUEL SERVICE STATIONS IN ACCRA-TEMA METROPOLITAN AREAS OF GHANA" Afribary (2021). Accessed August 15, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/environmental-monitoring-of-effluent-from-barima-fuel-service-center-mallam-accra-and-environmental-audit-of-some-fuel-service-stations-in-accra-tema-metropolitan-areas-of-ghana