With the rapidly increasing population and the associated decline in
landholding sizes, the government of Kenya has realized that agricultural
extensification is no longer possible for most parts of the country.
Consequently, development and promotion of land-augmenting technologies
such as inorganic fertilizers and improved seeds have been pursued as the most
viable alternatives towards increasing agricultural productivity. However,
adoption of farm technologies in the country remains low among smallholders
and widely varying across regions. Moreover, even where these improved
technologies have been well adopted, productivity has stagnated for most
Thus, this thesis sought to analyse factors that influence adoption of improved
farm technologies, measure technical efficiency and establish factors that
influence its variation across households, and estimate the effects of adoption
of improved technologies on crop yields among the smallholders. To address
the first objective, inter-dependence of inorganic fertilizer and improved maize
varieties adoption decisions was examined. For the second objective, data
envelopment analysis was used to compute the technical efficiency scores.
Tobit model was then used to establish the factors that influence interhousehold variation in technical efficiency. In response to the third objective,
yield differences were examined among complete, partial and non-adopters of
inorganic fertilizer and improved maize varieties using combined Differencein-Differences and Propensity Score Matching. Overall, the thesis makes
contribution in terms of both literature and methodology.
Results showed that adoption decisions on related technologies were interdependent. Such decisions were also influenced by farmer characteristics, plotlevel factors and market imperfections. The smallholders were found to be
technically inefficient, producing only 60 per cent of the possible output. Great
inter-household variations in technical efficiency existed, influenced by farmer
characteristics, production environment and production risks. Inorganic
fertilizers and improved maize varieties were found to increase yields
especially if adopted as a package and if farmers were more efficient.
Policy implication of these findings is that the government, the technology
developers and the development partners should have a two-pronged approach
in scaling up yields among the smallholders. Foremost, they have to implement
incentives to accelerate complete adoption of these technologies. Easing
market imperfections would be an important step towards this. Second, they
should address the constraints to farmer efficiency. Viable alternatives include
improving transport and marketing infrastructure, encouraging the smallholders
to supplement inorganic fertilizer with manure, enhancing irrigated agriculture,
advising smallholders to keep optimal plot sizes, and entrenching secure land
Edu, F (2021). Essays On Farm Technology Adoption, Technical Efficiency And Productivity In Smallholder Food Crop Agriculture In Kenya. Afribary.com: Retrieved June 24, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/essays-on-farm-technology-adoption-technical-efficiency-and-productivity-in-smallholder-food-crop-agriculture-in-kenya
Frontiers, Edu. "Essays On Farm Technology Adoption, Technical Efficiency And Productivity In Smallholder Food Crop Agriculture In Kenya" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 04 Jun. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/essays-on-farm-technology-adoption-technical-efficiency-and-productivity-in-smallholder-food-crop-agriculture-in-kenya . Accessed 24 Jun. 2021.
Frontiers, Edu. "Essays On Farm Technology Adoption, Technical Efficiency And Productivity In Smallholder Food Crop Agriculture In Kenya". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 04 Jun. 2021. Web. 24 Jun. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/essays-on-farm-technology-adoption-technical-efficiency-and-productivity-in-smallholder-food-crop-agriculture-in-kenya >.
Frontiers, Edu. "Essays On Farm Technology Adoption, Technical Efficiency And Productivity In Smallholder Food Crop Agriculture In Kenya" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed June 24, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/essays-on-farm-technology-adoption-technical-efficiency-and-productivity-in-smallholder-food-crop-agriculture-in-kenya