EVALUATION OF THE ATTRACTORS AND DETRACTORS OF RADIOGRAPHY AS A CAREER CHOICE IN THREE TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH-EAST AND SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA.

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ABSTRACT
 In Nigeria today, admission into radiography is competitive relative to what it used to be. Many students from other discipline are craving to change to radiography, those that are already in the course are not planning to leave and people that did not qualify for the programme course are struggling to enter at all cost.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current attractors and detractors of radiography as a career choice among radiography students in South-East and South-South Nigeria.
A survey of 424 clinical year radiography students from UNEC, UNICAL and NAU was conducted. Data on demography of the respondents, opinions on whether career ladder, role extension, radiation hazards, internship programme and family and friends are either attractors or detractors in radiography as a career choice as well as their perception of quality of radiography training in Nigeria were collected by use of questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS for descriptive statistics and results presented in simple tables, charts and percentages.
Among the 424 respondents, 47% were from UNEC while 37% and 16% were from UNICAL and NAU respectively. Ninety four percent  of the studied sample have made up their mind to stick to radiography and progress in it as a career while 6% concluded that they will leave radiography in future for their dream career. Only 182(42%) recognized career ladder as an attractor in radiography while role extension and internship were 386(91%) and 326(77%) respectively. However, 58(14%) of the respondents acknowledged radiation hazards as a detractor and 69(16%) of the respondents admitted that family and friends are detractor. Finally, greater percent of the respondents agreed that there perceived quality of radiography training is on the down side.
 The results showed that role extension and internship program were major attractors and while radiation hazard and family and friends were not major detractors in radiography in the areas studied.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page …………………………………………………………………………………………i
Approval Page …………………………………………………………………………………...ii
Certification page …………………………………………………………………………….…iii
Dedication……………………………………………………………………………...…….iv
Acknowledgement…. ……………………………………………………………………………v
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………….……vi
Table of contents…………………………………………………………………………..vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study   ………………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Statement of problems ……………………………………………………………………….2
1.3 Purpose of study ……………………………………………………………………………...3
1.4 Specific objectives …………………………………………………………………………....3
1.5 Significance of study …………………………………………………………………………3
1.6 Scope of study ………………………………………………………………………………..3
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Attractors and detractors of radiography as career choice …………………………………..4
2.2 Career ladder / career progression ………………………………………………………..…4
2.3 Role development / Role extension …………………………………………………….…….7
2.4 Radiation hazards …………………………………………………………………...………..9
2.5 Internship and job opportunities ………………………………………………………….…11
2.6 Family and friends …………………………………………………………………………..13
2.7 Theoretical background of the study ………………………………………………………..14
2.7.1 Radiography career …………………………………………………………………….…18
2.7.2 Skills ………………………………………………………………………………………21
2.7.3 Why should I want to be a radiographer? ……………………………………………..….21
2.7.4 Career progression ………………………………………………………………………..22
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Research Methodology ……………………………………………………………………..23
3.1 Research Design …………………………………………………………………………….23
3.2 Target population …………………………………………………………………………...23
3.3 Sampling procedure/ size …………………………………………………………………...23
3.4 Data collection instrument ………………………………………………………………….23
3.5 Data collection ……………………………………………………………………………....24
3.6 Method of data analysis ……………………………………………………………………..24
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Data analysis and presentation ………………………………………………………………25
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Discussion and Implications of results……………………………………………………....34
5.2 Summary of findings ………………………………………………………………………...36
5.3 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………..........37
5.4 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………...........37
5.5 Limitations …………………………………………………………………………………..37
References……………………………………………………………………………………..…38
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………………41

INTRODUCTION

Career development is a lifelong course that can be fostered during education programs at all levels. It is very common for secondary school leavers to ponder about their option of course as well as to pick a specific career during the first year at university. Consequently it is extremely important for secondary schools to offer career guidance aimed to assist students make more informed as well as better educational career options. 
 Career uncertainty among university students remains a constant challenge especially in the changing economy. According to Rosenbaum1, a national survey reveals that nearly all high school seniors plan to attend university. Gaber and Wardle2 in their studies have also shown that approximately 20 percent of the students who attend a four year university course are undecided as graduate. This transition from high school to university may be extremely difficult for several students leaving them by means of unanswered questions as well as a feeling of hopelessness when it comes to choosing a major or career area. 
Medical Radiography as a professional career is the study and practice that involves use of ionizing radiation and other forms of wave in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radiography has been shown to be the youngest and the fastest growing profession in medical field and this is evident in rapid technological advancement and diversity. Notable diverse areas in Radiography includes; conventional radiography, mammography, computed tomography, ultrasonography, radionuclide imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, thermography and radiotherapy. Radiography is therefore the pivot of modern medicine because of its outstanding roles in evidence based medical practices.
Attractors and the detractors in this context encompass factors that motivate and demoralize radiography students respectively in choosing and sticking to radiography as a career choice.
In Nigeria, admission of students into medical radiography as a university programme is purely based on standardized criteria which include; ordinary level qualification in basic sciences, university matriculation examination (ume) and post-ume result cut-offs. In the past, students applying for radiography as a career course in Nigerian universities were not competitive even when many were eligible3. Entrant into Radiography profession as well as retaining them was also a problem and this was noted by Vosper et al4 subsequently, vacancy rate for radiography profession was far above the graduate output.
However, in Nigeria at present, admission into radiography as a career choice is highly competitive relative to what it used to be. Many students apply for radiography, students from other discipline are craving to change to radiography, those that are already in the course don’t have the intention of leaving and people that did not qualify for the programme course are struggling to enter at all cost. These could translate into loss of quality in Radiography training in Nigeria as the available facilities for quality training may not match with the increasing entrants. Also, vacancy rate for Radiography profession in Nigeria at present is not admirable and it could be that, it is not commensurate with graduate output and these calls for the need to evaluate the current attractors and detractors of Radiography as a career choice in tertiary institutions offering degree programme in Radiography in south-south and south-east  Nigeria.
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). EVALUATION OF THE ATTRACTORS AND DETRACTORS OF RADIOGRAPHY AS A CAREER CHOICE IN THREE TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH-EAST AND SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-attractors-and-detractors-of-radiography-as-a-career-choice-in-three-tertiary-institutions-in-south-east-and-south-south-nigeria-5609

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "EVALUATION OF THE ATTRACTORS AND DETRACTORS OF RADIOGRAPHY AS A CAREER CHOICE IN THREE TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH-EAST AND SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA." Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-attractors-and-detractors-of-radiography-as-a-career-choice-in-three-tertiary-institutions-in-south-east-and-south-south-nigeria-5609. Accessed 30 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "EVALUATION OF THE ATTRACTORS AND DETRACTORS OF RADIOGRAPHY AS A CAREER CHOICE IN THREE TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH-EAST AND SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA.". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 30 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-attractors-and-detractors-of-radiography-as-a-career-choice-in-three-tertiary-institutions-in-south-east-and-south-south-nigeria-5609 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "EVALUATION OF THE ATTRACTORS AND DETRACTORS OF RADIOGRAPHY AS A CAREER CHOICE IN THREE TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH-EAST AND SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA." Afribary (2018). Accessed November 30, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-attractors-and-detractors-of-radiography-as-a-career-choice-in-three-tertiary-institutions-in-south-east-and-south-south-nigeria-5609