EVALUATION OF THE HYGIENE PRACTISES IN ULTRASOUND LABORATORIES IN GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE CLINICS IN ONITSHA URBAN

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ABSTRACT

It was a survey research conducted in 2013 at ultrasound Laboratories of Ugochukwu Hospital and maternity, St Charles Hospital Boromm, General Hospital Onitsha and Toronto hospital and maternity all in Onitsha. Four research questions of at least. Three items each were used to obtain data from 120 respondents using convenient sampling. 
Hygiene is commonly understood as preventing infection through cleanliness. In broader call, Scientifically hygiene is the Maintenance of health and healthy living. Hygiene ranges from personal hygiene. Through domestic up to occupational hygiene and public health. 
It is a prospective non experimental survey study design. The non experimental design is chosen because it is suited design in involving human beings 
Indicated that 30 sonographers responded that they clean their ultrasound transducer after the examination, 15 sonographers the examination, 10 sonographers say that they only clean as soon as they remember, while 10 sonographers said that they only clean their transducer when soiled.
Hygienic practices like proper hand washing cleaning of ultrasound transducer with disinfectants by the end of the examination of each patient the protective barriers. 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page ……………………………ii
Approval Page ……………………………iii
Certification ……………………………iv
Dedication ……………………………v
Acknowledgement …………………………vi
Abstract ……………………………..vii
Table of Contents …………………………    viii
List of Tables  ………………………..…xi 
CHAPTER ONE 
1.1 Introduction ………………..………1 
1.2 Theories on Hygiene ………………………3
1.3 Statement of the Problem ………………..…6 
1.4 Purpose of Study ………………..……7
1.5 Significance of the Study ………………..…7
1.6 Scope of Study ………………..………7
CHAPTER TWO: 
2.1 Review of Literature ………………..……8
2.2 Control of Principles of Infection ………………..14
2.3 Techniques in Ultrasound Practices for Hygiene ……………16
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
3.1 Research Methodology  ………………..…18 
3.2 Sample size and Sampling Method  ……………..18
3.3 Source of Data  ………………..………18 
3.4 Data Collection  ………………..……19
3.5 Data Presentation  ………………....…19
CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION, SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AREAS OF FURTHER STUDY, CONCLUSION AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
4.1 Discussion  ………………..…….26
4.2 Summary and Finding …..…..………....27
CHAPTER FIVE: 
5.1 Conclusion  ………………………28
5.2 Recommendations ………………………28
5.3 Areas of Further Study ……………………28 
5.4 Limitations of the Study ……………………28
References …..................29
Appendix 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Pie charts and bar charts  ………………….20
Table 2: Cleaning of Ultrasound transducer  ……………22 
Table 3: The Barriers for infection control projection …………23 
Table 4: Sonographers exposure to infection ……………24
Table 5: Sonographers protect  to Infections  ……………24
 
INTRODUCTION

According to Garner et al1 the term hygiene originates as a reference to Hygieia,  who  was   a daughter of Asclepius  and the goddess of health, cleanliness and sanitation. Hygine  is commonly  understood as preventing  infection through cleanliness. In broader call, scientifically hygiene is the maintenance of health and healthy living.  Hygiene ranges from personal hygiene, through domestic up to occupational hygiene and public health.
Outward signs of good hygiene include the absence of visible dirt (including dust and stains on clothing) or of bad odour/smells. Good hygiene is an aid to health, beauty, comfort, and social interactions. It directly aids in disease prevention and/or disease isolation.
Hygienic practices, such as frequent hand washing or the use of autoclaved and sterilized water/equipment in surgery/medical operations has a profound impact on reducing the spread of disease. This is because they kill or  remove disease- causing  microbes in the immediate surroundings. For instance, washing one’s hands after using the toilet and before handling food reduces the chance of spreading E. coil bacteria and Hepatitis A, both of which are spread from fecal contamination of food. Adequate hygiene requires an adequate and convenient supply of clean water.
Clinically hygienic practices include use of bandaging and dressing of wounds, Use of protective  clothing such as masks, gowns, caps, eyewear  and gloves, sterilization of instruments used in surgical procedures, safe disposal of medical waste etc.
In ultrasound examinations, there is a close contact of the probe with the patients’ body and sometimes insertion of the probe into body orifices of the patient is done. This contact therefore is a fertile ground for transfer of infection of hygienic practices is not ensured.
The level of hygienic practices in ultrasound laboratories depend on the knowledge, skill and importance attached to the prevention of personnel contamination as well as transfer of infection among different patients. The government/public ultrasound laboratories are assumed to have well trained professionals who are expected to practices hygienic procedures. On the other hand private ultrasound laboratories are expected to undertake high quality  services to ensure satisfaction of their clients  and improve their patronage. Assessment of the attainment of these expectations is the gap to be filled with this study.
In a related study, Sanjay et al2 in their research work, Comparative performance of Private and Public Healthcare Systems in Low- and Middle- income Countries in USA: A Systematic Review. The Systematic review Does not support the claim that the private sector is usually more efficient, accountable, or medically effective than the public sector; however, the public sector appears frequently to lack timeliness and hospitality towards patients . 
Also Tuan et al3 in their study , comparative quality of private and public health services in rural Vietnam discovered that private providers are successfully competing with the public health centre system in rural areas but not because they provide cheaper or better services. Public sector infrastructure was superior to that of the private providers. The quality of  service provided by public providers was poor and not controlled but significantly better than that of private providers  patient satisfaction and cost of care were similar between the two groups.
Mary et al4 in influence of Role Models and Hospital Design on the Hand Hygiene of Health-care Workers found out that health –care Worker hand –hygiene compliance is influenced significantly by the behavior of other health-care workers. An increased number of hand –washing sinks , as a sole measure, did not increase hand –hygiene compliance .
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). EVALUATION OF THE HYGIENE PRACTISES IN ULTRASOUND LABORATORIES IN GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE CLINICS IN ONITSHA URBAN. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-hygiene-practises-in-ultrasound-laboratories-in-government-and-private-clinics-in-onitsha-urban-6713

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "EVALUATION OF THE HYGIENE PRACTISES IN ULTRASOUND LABORATORIES IN GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE CLINICS IN ONITSHA URBAN" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-hygiene-practises-in-ultrasound-laboratories-in-government-and-private-clinics-in-onitsha-urban-6713. Accessed 10 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "EVALUATION OF THE HYGIENE PRACTISES IN ULTRASOUND LABORATORIES IN GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE CLINICS IN ONITSHA URBAN". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 10 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-hygiene-practises-in-ultrasound-laboratories-in-government-and-private-clinics-in-onitsha-urban-6713 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "EVALUATION OF THE HYGIENE PRACTISES IN ULTRASOUND LABORATORIES IN GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE CLINICS IN ONITSHA URBAN" Afribary (2018). Accessed December 10, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-hygiene-practises-in-ultrasound-laboratories-in-government-and-private-clinics-in-onitsha-urban-6713