Extraction, Isolation, Characterization and Anti- Microbial Activities of Bridelier Ferrugineol Bark Extracts

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page……………………………………………………………………..i

Certification………………………………………………………………….ii                   

Dedication …………………………………………………………………..iii                   

Acknowledgment ……………………………………………………………iv

Abstract………………………………………………………………………v

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………..1

1.1 Micro-organisms………………………………………………………....1

1.2 Classification of micro-organism………………………………………...2

1.2.1 Bacteria………………………………………………………………...3

1.2.2 Virus…………………………………………………………………...4

1.2.3 Algae…………………………………………………………………..4

1.2.4 Fungi…………………………………………………………………..5

1.2.5 Protozoa ………………………………………………………………6

 CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review………………………………………………………..7

2.1 Bacteria…………………………………………………………………7

2.2 Bacteria and its cells……………………………………………………9

2.3 Shape of the bacteria…………………………………………………...12                    

2.4 Environmental effect of bacteria……………………………………….14

2.5 Medicinal plants………………………………………………………...16

2.5.1 Characteristics of medicinal plants…………………………………...17

2.6   Medicinal plants as antimicrobial……………………………………...26

2.7 Why considering medicinal plants as antimicrobial…………………….28

2.8    Botanical profile of Bridelia ferruginea ………………………………30

2.8.1   Taxonomy of plant…………………………………………………...31

2.8.2   Plant description…………………………………………………….31

2.8.3   Properties……………………………………………………………32

2.8.4   Cultivation details…………………………………………………...32

2.8.5   Edible uses…………………………………………………………..32

2.8.6   Medicinal uses……………………………………………………....32

2.8.7   Propagation………………………………………………………….33

2.9 Bridelia ferruginea as antimicrobial…………………………………….33

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and methods………………………………………………….35

3.1 Aims and objectives…………………………………………………….35

3.2 Materials…………………………………………………………………35

3.2.1 Chemicals,solvents and chemical reagents……………………………35

3.2.2 Equipment and materials………………………………………………36

3.3    Methods………………………………………………………………. 36

3.3.1 Collection and preparation of plant materials…………………………36

3.3.2 Extraction of plant materials…………………………………………..36

3.3.3 Phytochemical screening of Methanol extract………………………...37

3.3.4 Phytochemical screening of Hexane extract………………………….40

3.3.5 Phytochemical screening of Acetone extract…………………………43

3.4    Thin-layer chromatography……………………………………………47

3.5    Isolation and characterization of the crude extract……………………49

3.5.1 Column chromatography………………………………………………49

3.5.2 Mass of fractions gotten from the column chromatography…………..49

3.6 Instrumentation techniques………………………………………………50

3.6.1 Sample analysis for GC-MS…………………………………………..50

3.6.2 Sample analysis for AAS………………………………………………51

3.7 Anti-microbial activity of Methanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea……………51

3.7.1 Method……………………………………………………………………….51

3.8 Flow diagram of the entire experiment carried out in this

      research work…………………………………………………………………..52

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result and discussion ……………………………………………………………53

4.1 Result of phytochemical analysis of methanol, N-Hexane, and             

      Acetone extract of Bidelia ferruginea…………………………………………...53           

4.2 Instrumentation techniques……………………………………………………..55

4.2.1 Result for GC-MS analysis……………………………………………………55

4.2.2 Result for AAS analysis ………………………………………………………61

4.3 Anti-microbial activities result…………………………………………………62

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….64

Recommendation…………………………………………………………………..64

Reference

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 Medicinal plants are those plants that are used in treating and preventing specificailments and diseases that affect human beings. Hence the important role of medicinal plants in health care deliverycannot be over emphasized. Brideliaferruginea is atropical medicinal plant which belongs to the family of euphorbiaceae commonly used in traditional Africa medicine for treating various diseases. My research in this study was concentrated on the bark of bridelia ferruginea to detect the active ingredient responsible for the antimicrobial activities extraction. Phytochemicalscreening, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, GC–MS, AAS and biological activities was carried out on the crude methanol extract of  Bridelia ferruginea. The pytochemical screening for the methanol crude extract indicate the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, resins and phlobatahin, while the phytochemical screening for acetone crude extract indicate the presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phlobatanin and reducing sugar. And the photochemical tests on the hexane crude extract gave negative result all through. Isolation was done using Column chromatography, AAS was used for the determination of some certain heavy metals present in both the isolate and the crude which may be toxic to man health and the GC–MS was used to determine the presences of unknown substances in the sample. Result for GC-MS shown the presence of seven compounds that are medicinal namely, 2-[4-methyl-6-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)hexa-1,3,5-trienyl]cyclohex-1-en-1-carboxaldehyde, limonene-6-ol,pivalate, 1-Heptatriacotanol, Benzene,1-4-dicloro, cyclobarbital, 2-nonadecanone 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, 1-monolinoleylglycerol trimethylsilylether. While for AAS, two metals were detected namely iron (2.1ppm) and zinc (0.05ppm) which are non-toxic for human consumption. And also result from the antibacterial activities shows that Bridelia ferruginea was highly susceptible to Escherichia coli and highly resistant to Proteus vulgaris.

 

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APA

MUTIAT, A (2022). Extraction, Isolation, Characterization and Anti- Microbial Activities of Bridelier Ferrugineol Bark Extracts. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/extraction-isolation-characterization-and-anti-microbial-activities-of-bridelier-ferrugineol-bark-extracts

MLA 8th

MUTIAT, ABDULLATEEF "Extraction, Isolation, Characterization and Anti- Microbial Activities of Bridelier Ferrugineol Bark Extracts" Afribary. Afribary, 05 Jan. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/extraction-isolation-characterization-and-anti-microbial-activities-of-bridelier-ferrugineol-bark-extracts. Accessed 13 Aug. 2022.

MLA7

MUTIAT, ABDULLATEEF . "Extraction, Isolation, Characterization and Anti- Microbial Activities of Bridelier Ferrugineol Bark Extracts". Afribary, Afribary, 05 Jan. 2022. Web. 13 Aug. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/extraction-isolation-characterization-and-anti-microbial-activities-of-bridelier-ferrugineol-bark-extracts >.

Chicago

MUTIAT, ABDULLATEEF . "Extraction, Isolation, Characterization and Anti- Microbial Activities of Bridelier Ferrugineol Bark Extracts" Afribary (2022). Accessed August 13, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/extraction-isolation-characterization-and-anti-microbial-activities-of-bridelier-ferrugineol-bark-extracts