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Basically, geological mapping involves the study of rocks; in situ, that is, in their natural environment and the representation of such rocks on a geological map. Furthermore, rocks of the Igarra area constitute part of the Basement Complex of southwestern Nigeria. On the basis of field relationships and petrological studies, these rocks can be grouped into gneissic rocks, meta-sedimentary assemblages, intrusive igneous rock bodies and sedimentary rocks (formations).

            The gneissic rocks comprise of calc-gneiss and migmatite-gneiss, and the metasedimentary assemblages chiefly; metapelites are found as quartzites and pelitic schist. The intrusive rocks consist essentially of the Pan-African granitic units.  The minor rocks include; pegmatite and quartz vein.

            Field and petrographic studies have confirmed that the rocks in this area have undergone at least three episodes of deformation, D1, D2  and D3. The first and second episodes of deformation produced F1 and F2 along with the foliations S1 and S2 respectively. Associated with the three episodes of deformations D1, D2 and D3 are the M1, M2 and M3 episodes of metamorphism. The entire study area belongs to low to middle metamorphic grade (that is, greenschist facies to amphibolite facies).

            This comprehensive report consist of two section A and B. Although section A is also the basement complex of Nigeria consists of the migmatite gneissic complex, the metasediment, schist belt, the granitoids and the minor rocks. The granitiods consist of mainly of syenite and aplites (microgranite) while the minor rocks are quartz veins, aplites and dolerites dykes. The region has undergone multiple deformations, evidence of which are folds, faults, cross-cutting relationship and various types of metamorphism. The contact point of all rocks and structural features were established. The region is also of great economic interest because of marble, quartzite and granite which are quarried for industrial purposes.

While section B is a report of the independent geologic mapping of Are Ekiti area. In this exercise, the mapping techniques learnt at igarra were independently put to use. The lithology encounter are the migmatite gneiss complex which consist of biotite and biotite gneiss, banded gneiss, and meta igneous rocks.

            The mapping exercise involves the description of the field relationships between different rock types. Mapping is carried out in the following order of time of formation., chemical and mineralogical composition, the nature and altitude (geomorphology) of the rock type, and the lithology as well as the structure. 

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Adeapin, S. (2018). FIELD REPORT ON THE GEOLOGICAL MAPPING OF IGARRA AREA. Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

Adeapin, Samuel "FIELD REPORT ON THE GEOLOGICAL MAPPING OF IGARRA AREA" Afribary. Afribary, 23 Mar. 2018, Accessed 10 Jun. 2023.


Adeapin, Samuel . "FIELD REPORT ON THE GEOLOGICAL MAPPING OF IGARRA AREA". Afribary, Afribary, 23 Mar. 2018. Web. 10 Jun. 2023. < >.


Adeapin, Samuel . "FIELD REPORT ON THE GEOLOGICAL MAPPING OF IGARRA AREA" Afribary (2018). Accessed June 10, 2023.