Research Papers/Topics in Applied Epidemiology

Determinants Of Preterm Delivery In Ridge Regional Hospital, Greater Accra

ABSTRACT Introduction: Globally, prematurity is a major determinant of neonatal morbidity and mortality contributing about 30%-40% of neonatal mortality and 20% to 30% of infant and under-five mortality. The world‟s preterm birth rate keeps rising since the last two decades with an increase of 20% since 1990 in high-income countries. Major risk factors remain unknown. The consequences are enormous with developmental and childhood complications as well as high economic and psycho-soci...

Non Adherence To Pmtct Treatment And Loss To Follow Up Of Hiv Positive Mothers And Babies In Mombasa County, Kenya

Kenya has more than 2.5 million people living with HIV and AIDS. Mombasa County had a prevalence rate of 7.8% in the year 2009. Globally 390,000 babies were infected with HIV in the year 2010 through mother to child transmission. In Kenya an estimated 37,000 to 40, 000 infants are infected annually in utero. This could be due to loss to follow up and non-adherence to ARVs and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) guidelines. The World Health Organization ...

Bioequivalence Of Micronutrient Powders To Conventional Fortification On Zinc Status Of Children Aged 6-36 Months In Thika Informal Settlements, Kenya

ABSTRACT Corn Soy Blend (CSB) is the backbone of supplementation feeding for malnourished children. CSB however, has poor micronutrient bioavailability and may result into poor outcomes during nutrition recovery of the children. Micronutrient powders (MNPs) have a potential to improve micronutrient nutrition. Scientific evidence on the efficacy of MNPs in improving zinc (Zn) status among moderately malnourished children is scarce. This cluster randomized trial was designed to establish ...

Morbidity Of Diarrheal Disease Among Children Aged Under Five Years Living In Internally Displaced Population Camps Of Hodan District, Mogadhishu-Somalia

ABSTRACT The last two decades of armed conflicts, lack of functioning government, economic collapse, and disintegration of the health system and other public services - together with recurrent droughts and famines, have turned Somalia into one of the world’s most difficult environments for survival. The under-five mortality in Somalia is estimated at 200 deaths per 1,000 live births, which is one of the highest in the world. Diarrhea is the main killer; contributing to 20-25 per cent ...

Predictors Of Preterm Birth Among Women Of Pastoralist Communities In Marsabit County, Kenya.

ABSTRACTPreterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. The prevalence of PTB in Africa (about 12%) is more than twice that in developed countries (about 5%). In Kenya, the prevalence is about 17% which is way more than the average in Africa, pointing to the need for targeted interventions to reduce its burden. Sub County Medical Officer of Health (SCMOH) of Moyale Sub-County, reported an increasing trend in Preterm Birth (PTB) in the region from 40% in 2012 to 60% in 20...

Musculoskeletal Pain And School Bag Usage Among Upper Primary School- Going Children In Nairobi City County, Kenya

ABSTRACT There has been a growing concern on the effect of heavy backpack on health among school going children who are at an important stage of their growth and development. Grade-based learning has pushed many students to carrying heavy backpacks hence leaving them exposed to musculoskeletal problems. The objective of this study was to measure the backpack weight carried by pupils in Starehe sub-county in order to assess the effects of backpack weight on musculoskeletal pain. A descri...

Foot self-care behaviour among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in nakuru county, kenya.

ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, action or both. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus accounts for 85% of all diabetic cases making it a common and growing health problem with significant mortality and morbidity including foot problems such as neuropathy, ulceration, infection and amputation. Prevention and prophylactic foot care have been ad...

Nutritional Management Of Childhood Diarrhoea In Korogocho Informal Settlement Nairobi City County, Kenya

ABSTRACT Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old worldwide. Nearly one in five children deaths – about 1.5 million each year is due to diarrhea. Diarrhea is the third most common cause of mortality and morbidity in Kenya, with a case fatality of up to 21 percent causing approximately 9 percent of deaths in children less than five years of age. The primary focus of diarrheal disease control programs has been on improved case management through th...

Determinants Of Disclosure On Hiv Sero-Status Among People Living With Hiv And On Antiretroviral Treatment At Mombasa County Referral Hospital, Kenya

ABSTRACT It is estimated that Kenya has 1.6 million people living with HIV and 88,000 new adult infections annually. The country has adult HIV prevalence rate of between 5.6 - 7.2% and incidence rate of 0.4 – 0.7%. Recent studies on HIV disclosure among adult sexual partners revealed HIV 70-80% disclosure rates. A number of studies on HIV and AIDS have been undertaken in Kenya. However, determinants of disclosure among persons living with HIV remain unclear. The objective of this study was ...

Determinants Of Sexual Violence Among Young People In Naivasha District, Nakuru County, Kenya

ABSTRACTSexual violence is a serious public health, social and human rights problem affecting millions of people each year throughout the world. It affects both sexes but women and girls are the most affected. This study sought to determine prevalence and pattern of sexual violence, determinants of sexual violence and assess the knowledge level of young people on sexual violence in Naivasha District. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study where both quantitative and qualitative methods ...

Effects Of Bednet Use, Topography And Targeted Vector Control On Malaria Transmission In The Highlands Of Vihiga And Kakamega Counties, Western Kenya

ABSTRACTInsecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are known to be highly effective in reducingmalaria morbidity and mortality. However, there is scanty information on actualusage of owned nets which varies among households. Such variations may limit thepotential effect of nets and cause spatial heterogeneity on malaria transmission.Likewise there is limited information and utilization of topographic parameters suchas the shape of the underlying valley ecosystem in identification of high-risk ...

Determinants Of Ebola Virus Disease Infection Among Healthcare Workers, Montserrado County, Liberia

ABSTRACT Background: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a zoonotic and fatal illness. The fatality rates in outbreaks have ranged from 25% to 90%. An outbreak of EVD hit West Africa in 2014, especially Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone; claiming more than 2000 lives, including 881 health care workers. EVD caused about 378 cases and 192 deaths among healthcare workers in Liberia; Montserrado County was the hardest hit with over 90 cases and about 60 deaths. This research determined risk factors...

Prevalence Of Theileria Parva And Trypanosome Infections In The Dry Season: A Case Of Monduli District, Northern Tanzania

ABSTRACT East Coast fever (ECF) caused by Theileria parva and African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) caused by some Trypanosoma species are the most devastating cattle diseases that affect cattle productivity in Eastern, central and Southern Africa including Tanzania. A study was conducted in Monduli district in the Maasai steppe ecosystem of Tanzania to determine the prevalence of infections during the dry season when there is increased interaction between livestock and wildlife as a resu...

Assessment Of The Epidemiological Status,Seroprevalence And Molecular Detection Of Peste Des Petits Ruminants In Goats And Sheep Along Tanzania-Malawi Border

A B S T RA C T Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral animal disease that impact negatively on food security of livestock keepers in Africa due to its fast spread and death of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in West Africa and afterwards Asia, rest of Africa including East Africa and Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. Lack of vaccination and effective application of diagnostic technologies to identify carriers has led to fast spr...

Molecular Prevalence Of Trypanosome Infections In Cattle And Tsetse Flies In Simanjiro And Monduli Districts, Maasai Steppe Of Northern Tanzania

 ABSTRACT Livelihoods of the Maasai people in Northern Tanzania is sustained by Agriculture, specialising mostly in pastoral livestock production which is threatened by vector-borne diseases of which trypanosomosis is one of them. The vulnerability of these communities to trypanosomosis is enhanced by their interaction with wild animals due to their proximity to wildlife interface areas which are highly infested with ticks and tsetse flies. A study was carried out from June 2015 to...


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