Migration has long been a response to unfavourable environmental conditions, and an engine
for population redistribution. Studies acknowledge that gender influences vulnerability to
environmental change and migration. However, there is a paucity of empirical research on the
interconnectedness between vulnerability to environmental change and migration from a
gendered perspective. Further, studies rarely migration intentions, actual migration and
immobility migration in a holistic manner. This thesis examines the interrelationships among
gender, vulnerability to environmental change and migration in the Volta Delta of Ghana.
Three aspects of migration behaviour comprising are investigated in relation to household
vulnerability, measured as economic and environmental sensitivity to flooding and drought. I
considered the household as a gendered unit to investigate household vulnerability and
migration behaviour. Household gender was categorised based on both the sex of household
head and the presence of an adult of alternative sex than the head’s. Thus, there are four
household gender categories: male-headed households with female adults, male-adult only
households, female-headed households with male adults, and female-adult only households.
This quantitative study data from the 2016 DEltas, vulnerability to Climate Change: Migration
and Adaptation (DECCMA) Ghana Survey. The first stage of analyses included univariate
descriptions of the variables in the study. The second stage assessed relationship between
household gender category and vulnerability while controlling for geophysical, demographic
and socioeconomic characteristics. The final stage examined the interrelationship among
household gender, economic and environmental vulnerability to drought and flooding, and
migration. Univariate analyses indicate that the highest proportion of household type was the
male-headed households with female adults while the least were the female-headed households
with male adults. Generally, vulnerability to drought was higher than vulnerability to flooding
while environmental vulnerability was higher than economic vulnerability. About half the households had migrants living out; about two-fifths had members who aspired to migrate and
less than a fifth were involuntarily immobile. Results of multivariate analyses indicate that
household gender category is significantly associated with economic vulnerability to droughts.
Female-adult only households are less vulnerable to economic impacts of droughts than maleheaded households with female adults. Female-adults only households are also less likely to
have members aspiring to migrate and to be involuntarily immobile. Yet, these households are
more likely to have members who have migrated. Male-adult only households have higher
propensities for migration aspiration and to be involuntarily immobile. Also, households that
are vulnerable to economic impacts of droughts are more likely than non-vulnerable
households to have out-migrants, but are less likely to have migration aspiration, and to be
involuntarily immobile. A synthesis of results reveals an interrelationship through household
gender category, vulnerability and migration. Household gender category is influenced by outmigration of a member and this affects household vulnerability to environmental change.
Gender structure determines the levels of aspirations and involuntary immobility. The study
cautions against the blanket feminisation of vulnerability, as results indicate that female-adult
only households have lowest economic vulnerability to drought while male-adults only
households tend to not have the capacity to move even if they intend to. Finally, this study
recommends that to fully comprehend the environment-migration nexus, studies need to look
at different dimensions of vulnerability in relation to different aspects of migration.
CDR, C (2021). Gender, Vulnerability To Environmental Change And Migration In The Volta Delta, Ghana. Afribary.com: Retrieved April 16, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/gender-vulnerability-to-environmental-change-and-migration-in-the-volta-delta-ghana
Coalition, CDR. "Gender, Vulnerability To Environmental Change And Migration In The Volta Delta, Ghana" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 05 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/gender-vulnerability-to-environmental-change-and-migration-in-the-volta-delta-ghana . Accessed 16 Apr. 2021.
Coalition, CDR. "Gender, Vulnerability To Environmental Change And Migration In The Volta Delta, Ghana". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 05 Apr. 2021. Web. 16 Apr. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/gender-vulnerability-to-environmental-change-and-migration-in-the-volta-delta-ghana >.
Coalition, CDR. "Gender, Vulnerability To Environmental Change And Migration In The Volta Delta, Ghana" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed April 16, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/gender-vulnerability-to-environmental-change-and-migration-in-the-volta-delta-ghana