ABSTRACT Migration has long been a response to unfavourable environmental conditions, and an engine for population redistribution. Studies acknowledge that gender influences vulnerability to environmental change and migration. However, there is a paucity of empirical research on the interconnectedness between vulnerability to environmental change and migration from a gendered perspective. Further, studies rarely migration intentions, actual migration and immobility migration in a holistic manner. This thesis examines the interrelationships among gender, vulnerability to environmental change and migration in the Volta Delta of Ghana. Three aspects of migration behaviour comprising are investigated in relation to household vulnerability, measured as economic and environmental sensitivity to flooding and drought. I considered the household as a gendered unit to investigate household vulnerability and migration behaviour. Household gender was categorised based on both the sex of household head and the presence of an adult of alternative sex than the head’s. Thus, there are four household gender categories: male-headed households with female adults, male-adult only households, female-headed households with male adults, and female-adult only households. This quantitative study data from the 2016 DEltas, vulnerability to Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA) Ghana Survey. The first stage of analyses included univariate descriptions of the variables in the study. The second stage assessed relationship between household gender category and vulnerability while controlling for geophysical, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The final stage examined the interrelationship among household gender, economic and environmental vulnerability to drought and flooding, and migration. Univariate analyses indicate that the highest proportion of household type was the male-headed households with female adults while the least were the female-headed households with male adults. Generally, vulnerability to drought was higher than vulnerability to flooding while environmental vulnerability was higher than economic vulnerability. About half the households had migrants living out; about two-fifths had members who aspired to migrate and less than a fifth were involuntarily immobile. Results of multivariate analyses indicate that household gender category is significantly associated with economic vulnerability to droughts. Female-adult only households are less vulnerable to economic impacts of droughts than maleheaded households with female adults. Female-adults only households are also less likely to have members aspiring to migrate and to be involuntarily immobile. Yet, these households are more likely to have members who have migrated. Male-adult only households have higher propensities for migration aspiration and to be involuntarily immobile. Also, households that are vulnerable to economic impacts of droughts are more likely than non-vulnerable households to have out-migrants, but are less likely to have migration aspiration, and to be involuntarily immobile. A synthesis of results reveals an interrelationship through household gender category, vulnerability and migration. Household gender category is influenced by outmigration of a member and this affects household vulnerability to environmental change. Gender structure determines the levels of aspirations and involuntary immobility. The study cautions against the blanket feminisation of vulnerability, as results indicate that female-adult only households have lowest economic vulnerability to drought while male-adults only households tend to not have the capacity to move even if they intend to. Finally, this study recommends that to fully comprehend the environment-migration nexus, studies need to look at different dimensions of vulnerability in relation to different aspects of migration.
ATIGLO, D (2021). Gender, Vulnerability To Environmental Change And Migration In The Volta Delta, Ghana. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/gender-vulnerability-to-environmental-change-and-migration-in-the-volta-delta-ghana
ATIGLO, DONATUS "Gender, Vulnerability To Environmental Change And Migration In The Volta Delta, Ghana" Afribary. Afribary, 05 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/gender-vulnerability-to-environmental-change-and-migration-in-the-volta-delta-ghana. Accessed 29 Nov. 2023.
ATIGLO, DONATUS . "Gender, Vulnerability To Environmental Change And Migration In The Volta Delta, Ghana". Afribary, Afribary, 05 Apr. 2021. Web. 29 Nov. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/gender-vulnerability-to-environmental-change-and-migration-in-the-volta-delta-ghana >.
ATIGLO, DONATUS . "Gender, Vulnerability To Environmental Change And Migration In The Volta Delta, Ghana" Afribary (2021). Accessed November 29, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/gender-vulnerability-to-environmental-change-and-migration-in-the-volta-delta-ghana