Governmental Organization Water Projects and Social Development in Rulindo District, Rwanda

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ABSTRACT 

The purpose of the study was an investigation of the effect of water projects provided by Non- governmental organizations on the social development of the people of Rulindo District in Rwanda. According to the Rwanda Ministry of Health, Rulindo District was singled out as one of the districts most affected by problems related to lack of water and sanitation. The study was guided by the following objectives: i) to analyze how Water for People Projects have provided safe drinking water and improved sanitation facilities for the people of Rulindo district; ii) to assess the social development status of the people of Rulindo district as a result of water for people projects; and iii) to analyze the challenges encountered during the implementation of water for people projects in Rulindo District. This study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey design. The study population was 64,956 beneficiaries of the Water for People Project. The sample size was 398 respondents and 315 respondents participated in the research. Data collection was done through interviews and focus group discussion. The results indicated that through Water for People projects, the people of Rulindo are able to access safe and clean drinking water and improved sanitation facilities. Furthermore, the study found out that the social life of the people of Rulindo district are susceptible to vulnerability to the high poverty level which is attributed to low level of education and lack of formal employment. Lastly, the study found out that the challenges faced by the Water for People project was political interference, lack of adequate funding and project sustainability capacity. The study concluded that Water for People project is relevant in improving the social life of the people by providing accessible and affordable water system which will improve their wellbeing. The study made the following recommendations: the need to train more households on water storage and sanitation handling, and the use of technology to increase coverage with water and sanitation facilities.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ii

APPROVAL iii

DEDICATION iv

ACKOWLEDGEMENT v

LISTS OF ABBREVIATIONS ANT) ACRONYMS vi

LIST OF FIGURE x

ABSTRACT xi

CHAPTER ONE 1

INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background of the Study 1

1.1.1 Historical Perspective 1

1.1.2 Theoretical Perspective 3

1.1.3 Conceptual Perspective 4

1.1.4 Contextual Perspective 5

1.2 Problem Statement 5

1.3 Purpose of the Study 6

1.4 Objectives of the Study 6

1.5 Research Questions 7

1.7 Scope of the Study 7

1.7.1 Geographical Scope 7

1.7.2 Theoretical Scope 7

1.7.3 Content Scope 7

1.7.4 Time Scope 7

1.8 Significance of the Study 8

1.9 Operational Definitions of Key Terms 8

CHAPTER TWO 10

LITERATURE REVIEW 10

2.0 Introduction 10

2.1 Theoretical Framework 10

2.2 Conceptual Framework 11

2.3 Related Studies 12

2.3.1 Non-government water projects 12

2.3.1.1 Safe Drinking Water Facilities 15

2.3.1.2 Sanitation Facilities 16

2.3.2 Social Development .17

2.3.2.1 Reduced Vulnerability 18

2.3.2.2 Social Inclusion 21

2.3.2.3 Improved Wellbeing 23

2.3.3 Empirical Studies 25

2.4 Gaps in the Reviewed Literature 26

CHAPTER THREE 27

METHODOLOGY 27

3.0 Introduction 27

3.1 Research Design 27

3.2 Study Population 27

3.3 Sample Size 27

3.4 Sampling Technique 29

3.5 Data Source 29

3.6 Research Instruments (Data Collection Tools) 29

3.6.1 Focus Group Discussions 29

3.6.2 Documentary Review 30

3.7 Validity and Reliability 31

3.7.1 Validity 31

3.7.2 Reliability 31

3.8 Data Collection Procedure 31

3.9 Data Presentation 32

3.10 Data Analysis 32

3.11 Ethical Considerations 32

CHAPTER FOUR 34

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 34

4.0 Introduction 34

4.1 Response Rate 34

4.2 Demographic Characteristics ofthe Respondents 35

4.3 How Water for People Projects have Provided Safe Drinking Water and Improved Sanitation Facilities for the People of Rulindo District 37

4.4 The Social Development of the People of Rulindo District As a Result of Water For People Projects 45

4.5 The Challenges Encountered During the Implementation ofWater For People Projects in Rulindo District 50

CHAPTER FIVE 52

DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .52

5.0 Introduction 52

5.1 Discussions 52

5.1.1 How Water for People Projects have Provided Safe Drinking Water and Improved Sanitation Facilities for the People of Rulindo District 52

5.1.2 The Social Development of the People of Rulindo District As a Result ofWater For People Projects 54

5.1.3 The Challenges Encountered During the Implementation ofWater For People Projects in Rulindo District

5.2 Conclusion 55

5.3 Recommendations 56

5.4 Contribution to Knowledge 57

REFERNCES 58

APPENDICES 66

APPENDDC I: FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 66

APPENDIX II: INTERVIEW GUIDE QUESTIONS 68

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APA

Consults, E. & ALICE, I (2022). Governmental Organization Water Projects and Social Development in Rulindo District, Rwanda. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/governmental-organization-water-projects-and-social-development-in-rulindo-district-rwanda

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and IYAMUDUHAYE ALICE "Governmental Organization Water Projects and Social Development in Rulindo District, Rwanda" Afribary. Afribary, 23 Nov. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/governmental-organization-water-projects-and-social-development-in-rulindo-district-rwanda. Accessed 06 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and IYAMUDUHAYE ALICE . "Governmental Organization Water Projects and Social Development in Rulindo District, Rwanda". Afribary, Afribary, 23 Nov. 2022. Web. 06 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/governmental-organization-water-projects-and-social-development-in-rulindo-district-rwanda >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and ALICE, IYAMUDUHAYE . "Governmental Organization Water Projects and Social Development in Rulindo District, Rwanda" Afribary (2022). Accessed December 06, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/governmental-organization-water-projects-and-social-development-in-rulindo-district-rwanda