Overview of Treatment Failure of Streptococcus Pneumonia amongst Children in four different Southern African Countries

Tayo Adeshina 24 PAGES (5486 WORDS) Article
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Abstract:

Although avertable and treatable, pneumonia is still one of the top five causes of mortality in the developing world especially in Southern Africa. One major challenge being faced globally today in the field of public health is the pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics both in infants and adults. The purpose of this review was to compare rates and causes of treatment failure in South Africa, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique. Articles used for this review were searched for in electronic bibliographic databases using keywords such as streptococcus pneumonia, community acquired pneumonia, Sub Saharan Africa, South Africa, Treatment failure, antimicrobial resistance, infants, child mortality, case fatality rate, acute respiratory infection, streptococcal infection, pneumococcal vaccines and antibiotic treatment. Several literatures have been published on pneumonia and its treatment in these four countries. However, the articles used in this review covered an 11-year period.

Results reveal that streptococcus pneumonia is the most common strain of pneumonia found among children in South Africa, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, and their isolates usually develop resistance to commonly available antibiotic medications such as amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacine, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

Based on my findings, poverty, lack of access to health care, poor hygiene, HIV status and lack of knowledge on antibiotics and its use are key factors contributing to treatment failure in Southern Africa. It is suggested that free access should be made available to residents of southern Africa. Also, all vaccines should contain all strains of streptococcus bacteria.

                                                    Table of Contents

Abstract                                                                  ……………………………….. Page 3

Background and Significance                                 ……………………………….. Page 4

Rationale                                                                …………………………………Page 5

Goals and Objectives:                                             ………………………………..Page 16

Materials and Methods :                                         ………………………………..Page  17

Results                                                                    ……………………………….. Page 18

Discussion                                                             ………………………………... Page 19

Conclusion and Recommendation                         ……………………………….. Page 20

References                                                             ………………………………...page 21

 

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APA

Tayo, A (2018). Overview of Treatment Failure of Streptococcus Pneumonia amongst Children in four different Southern African Countries. Afribary.com: Retrieved June 19, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/haleemat-adeshinas-public-health-analysis

MLA 8th

Adeshina, Tayo. "Overview of Treatment Failure of Streptococcus Pneumonia amongst Children in four different Southern African Countries" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 02 Jul. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/haleemat-adeshinas-public-health-analysis . Accessed 19 Jun. 2019.

MLA7

Adeshina, Tayo. "Overview of Treatment Failure of Streptococcus Pneumonia amongst Children in four different Southern African Countries". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 02 Jul. 2018. Web. 19 Jun. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/haleemat-adeshinas-public-health-analysis >.

Chicago

Adeshina, Tayo. "Overview of Treatment Failure of Streptococcus Pneumonia amongst Children in four different Southern African Countries" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed June 19, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/haleemat-adeshinas-public-health-analysis