Heavy Metals Bioremediation Of Agricultural Soil Using Poultry Litter

Idara Ibah 75 PAGES (12976 WORDS) Project
Subscribe to access this work and thousands more

The aim of this research is to determine the level of heavy metals contamination of agricultural soil and to reduce its concentration in the soil. Soil sampled at Inua Eyet Ikot, Mkpanak, Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State was analyzed to check for the initial heavy metal concentration of the soil. Poultry litter as a nutrient additive bearing microorganisms, bacteria and fungi was introduced to the soil to reduce the concentration of heavy metals. The sampled soil was mixed with poultry litter at three different proportions i.e. poultry litter to crude oil contaminated soil namely PL 20% + COCS, PL 40% + COCS and PL 50% + COCS. Heavy metals Copper(Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd),  Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) concentration in the soil before and after 8 weeks were measured  and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) analysis which was carried out using wet oxidation method (digestion) for soils. The treatment category PL 50% + COCS proved to be more effective in the reduction of heavy metals in the soil as it reduced Copper, Iron, Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Nickel by 87.5%, 92.2%, 93.37%, 49.72%, 67%, 66.8%, 76.1% and 73.7%. Reductions in all treatment categories were statistically analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and was found to be significantly different from the untreated soil at probability value P<0.05, with the significance level at 95%. The research findings indicate that poultry litter, which has microorganisms in it, enhances reduction of the concentration of heavy metals in contaminated soils.

Keywords: heavy metals, poultry litter, bioremediation, crude oil contaminated soil


ABSTRACT viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION  1                                                 

1.1 Background of Study 1             

1.2 Statement of Problem 2              

1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study 3              

1.4 Significance of Study 3              

1.5 Scope of Study 4

1.6 Limitation of Study 4                  

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 5

2.1 The Properties of Refine Gas Oil and Crude oil 5                                                     

2.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Hydrocarbon and their Biodegradation. 6     

2.3 Effects of Crude Oil On Soil Physical Properties        6                                            

2.4 Effects of Petroleum and Oil – Based Products on Soil  7                                        

2.5 Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils and its Effects 8

2.6 Methods of Cleaning up Petroleum – Contaminated Soils             9                          

2.6.1 Ex-situ approach 9                                                                                            

2.6.1.1 Excavation 9

2.6.1.2 Soil washing 10

2.6.2 In – situ Approach  10                                                                                        

2.6.2.1 Bioremediation 11                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

2.6.2.2 Phytoremediation  11                                                                                       

2.7 Micro – Organisms in Bioremediation 11                                                                                                                                          

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and Methods    13                                                                                                                                                                                     

3.1 Description of the Study Area 13                                                                        

3.1.1 Study area location map  14                                                                                    

3.1.2 Field Sampling    15                                                                                          

3.2 Experimental Design 18                                                                                    

3.3 Particle Size Distribution and Bulk Density 18

3.3.1 Apparatus 18                                                                               

3.3.2 Media 18                                                                                                           

3.3.3 Reagents 18                                                                                      

3.3.4 Equipment 18                                                                                                           

3.4 Soil Moisture Content and Hydraulic Conductivity 20             

3.4.1 Apparatus 20    

3.4.2 Equipment 20

3.5 Microbiological Analysis 21      

3.5.1 Serial dilution of samples 21

3.5.1.1 Apparatus 21

3.5.2    Estimation of Microbial Load from the samples 21   

3.5.2.2 Media 22

3.5.3 Incubation of culture plates and counting of microbial colonies 23 

3.5.3.2 Equipment 23

3.5.4 Purification and maintenance of microbial isolates 23

3.5.4.1 Apparatus 23

3.5.4.2 Media 23                      

3.5.5 Characterization and Identification of microbial isolates 23    

3.5.5.1 Equipment 23

3.5.6 pH Analysis 25

3.5.6.1 Apparatus 25

3.5.6.2 Equipment 25

3.5.7 Heavy Metals Analysis 26

3.5.7.1 Apparatus/Materials 26

3.5.7.2 Equipment 26

3.5.7.3 Reagents 26

3.6 Statistical Analysis 27              

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION    28                                                                               

4.1 Particle Size Distribution and Bulk Density 28                                                     

4.2 Soil Moisture Content 30                                                                                         

4.3 Total Microbial Count 32                                                                                        

4.4 Microbial Isolates 35                                                                                            

4.5 pH Analysis 36                                                                                                         

4.6 Heavy Metals Analysis Results 38

4.7 Heavy Metal Analysis Discussion 44                                                                                                                                                   

4.7.1 Copper (Cu) 44                                                                                             

4.7.2 Iron (Fe) 45                                                                                                                   

4.7.3 Manganese (Mn) 45                                                                                    

4.7.4 Lead (Pb) 45                                                                                               

4.7.5 Cadmium (Cd) 46                                                                                        

4.7.6 Arsenic (As) 46                                                                                           

4.7.7 Chromium (Cr) 47                                                                                      

4.7.8 Nickel (Ni) 47                                                                                             

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS    48                                               

5.1 Conclusion 48                                                                                                  

5.2 Recommendation 48                                                                                      



LIST OF FIGURES Page

Figure 3.1a Akwa Ibom State showing the Study Area 14

Figure 3.1b Crude oil contaminated site showing Study Area and 15 Sample Location

Figure 4.1 Soil Particle Size Distribution (0 – 15cm) at 8 weeks 29    after treatments

Figure 4.2 Relative proportions of sand, silt and clay in the treatments 30 categories 

Figure 4.3 Percentage moisture content of the treatment categories 32

 Figure 4.4 THBC, FC and TCC counts 34

Figure 4.5 CC, HUB and HUF counts 45

Figure 4.6 pH levels of treatments and soil before and after 8 weeks 38

Figure 4.7 Initial and final concentration of Heavy metals in untreated soil 42

before and after 8 weeks

Figure 4.8 Initial and final concentration of Heavy metals in 43

PL 20% + COCS before and after 8 weeks.

Figure 4.9 Initial and final concentration of Heavy metals in 44

PL 40% + COCS before and after 8 weeks.

Figure 4d Initial and final concentration of the Heavy metals in 45

PL 50% + COCS before and after 8 weeks.

 

LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 2.1 Microbial Genera Degrading Hydrocarbon in Soils 12

Table 4.1 Particle size distribution of the treatment categories 28

Table 4.2 Some characteristics of the top 0 – 15 cm soil of the 29 experimental site and poultry litter.

Table 4.3 Relative Proportions of sand, silt and clay in the treatments 30

Table 4.4 Percentage Moisture Content of Experimental groups 31

 Table 4.5 THBC, FC and TCC Counts 33

Table 4.6 CC, HUB and HUF Counts 34

Table 4.7  Microbial Isolates of the Samples. 36

Table 4.8 Occurrence and Distribution of the Diverse Microbial Isolates 37

Table 4.9 Initial Concentration levels of Heavy metals 39

Table 11 Final Concentration levels of Heavy metals 39

Table 12 ANOVA at Week 0 40

Table 13 ANOVA at Week 8 41





LIST OF PLATES

Page

Plate3.1 Picture of soil sample collected in a plastic container    16

Plate 3.2 Picture of the poultry litter in a plastic container    16

Plate 3.3 Picture of device used as GPS device    17

Plate 3.4 Serial Dilution of Samples    22

Plate 3.5 Bacteria  Isolates    24

Plate 3.6 Fungi Isolates    24

Plate 3.7 pH Analysis    25

Plate 3.8 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer   27      


Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
Overall Rating

0

5 Star
(0)
4 Star
(0)
3 Star
(0)
2 Star
(0)
1 Star
(0)
APA

Idara, I (2019). Heavy Metals Bioremediation Of Agricultural Soil Using Poultry Litter. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 02, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/heavy-metals-bioremediation-of-agricultural-soil-using-poultry-litter

MLA 8th

Ibah, Idara. "Heavy Metals Bioremediation Of Agricultural Soil Using Poultry Litter" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 16 Aug. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/heavy-metals-bioremediation-of-agricultural-soil-using-poultry-litter . Accessed 02 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

Ibah, Idara. "Heavy Metals Bioremediation Of Agricultural Soil Using Poultry Litter". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 16 Aug. 2019. Web. 02 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/heavy-metals-bioremediation-of-agricultural-soil-using-poultry-litter >.

Chicago

Ibah, Idara. "Heavy Metals Bioremediation Of Agricultural Soil Using Poultry Litter" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed March 02, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/heavy-metals-bioremediation-of-agricultural-soil-using-poultry-litter