Household Reliance On Environmental Income And Wildlife-Induced Costs Of Living Adjacent To Protected Areas In Western Serengeti, Tanzania

ABSTRACT

Huge pressures on protected areas (PAs) in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania are increasing through the extractive use by surrounding communities and human-wildlife-related conflicts, which undermine conservation objectives and human welfares. The study examined household reliance on environmental income and wildlife-induced costs due to crop raiding and livestock depredation along the gradient of distance from Serengeti National Park (SNP) boundary in the western Serengeti. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire in 150 households, randomly selected in three villages (Robanda, Rwamkoma and Kowak). The study also involved focus group discussions, physical observation and archive data. Results indicate that environmental cash-income varies from 21.3% to 45.2% of the total annual cash-income. This reliance is associated with distance from SNP boundary, household wealth rank and absolute income from off-farm activities. Environmental income derived from inside PAs accounted for 14.7% and 31.2% of the total household income and total household environmental income, respectively. Households in the closest village accrued the highest income from inside PAs than households in a distant village. Moreover, income-poor households derived the highest relative income from inside PAs than medium-income and rich-income households. In addition, results revealed that household annual relative cost due to crop raiding was inversely related with distance from SNP boundary, but increased with the increase of income wealth of households. Nevertheless, the estimated relative household annual economic costs due to livestock depredation was inversely related with the increase of wealth of a household, although increased with the increase of distance from SNP boundary. The study recommends promotion of off-farm activities, improved wood fuel stoves, electricity and alternative sources of fuels, enhanced law enforcement to reduce pressure on PAs.

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APA

KYANDO, M (2021). Household Reliance On Environmental Income And Wildlife-Induced Costs Of Living Adjacent To Protected Areas In Western Serengeti, Tanzania. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/household-reliance-on-environmental-income-and-wildlife-induced-costs-of-living-adjacent-to-protected-areas-in-western-serengeti-tanzania

MLA 8th

KYANDO, MOSES "Household Reliance On Environmental Income And Wildlife-Induced Costs Of Living Adjacent To Protected Areas In Western Serengeti, Tanzania" Afribary. Afribary, 26 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/household-reliance-on-environmental-income-and-wildlife-induced-costs-of-living-adjacent-to-protected-areas-in-western-serengeti-tanzania. Accessed 24 May. 2024.

MLA7

KYANDO, MOSES . "Household Reliance On Environmental Income And Wildlife-Induced Costs Of Living Adjacent To Protected Areas In Western Serengeti, Tanzania". Afribary, Afribary, 26 Apr. 2021. Web. 24 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/household-reliance-on-environmental-income-and-wildlife-induced-costs-of-living-adjacent-to-protected-areas-in-western-serengeti-tanzania >.

Chicago

KYANDO, MOSES . "Household Reliance On Environmental Income And Wildlife-Induced Costs Of Living Adjacent To Protected Areas In Western Serengeti, Tanzania" Afribary (2021). Accessed May 24, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/household-reliance-on-environmental-income-and-wildlife-induced-costs-of-living-adjacent-to-protected-areas-in-western-serengeti-tanzania