Hydrochemical Assessment Of Surface Water In Part Of Southeastern Nigeria


The area of study occurs mainly within the Calabar Flank and part of the adjacent basement terrain of the Oban Massif. The latter is composed of mainly migmatitic gneisses, phyllites, amphibolites, granites, schists and granodiorites, while the major lithologies of the Calabar Flank include carbonates, shales, claystones and sandstones. This study aims at determining the quality and usability of the water, in addition to ascertaining the possible pollutants and ways to ameliorate their effects.

Results of some physical and hydrochemical parameters have average values of 5.53pH, 77.4mg/I TDS, 17.8mg/l Na+, 5.5mg/l Ca2+, 13.2mg/l Cl , 3.3mg/l S042', 0.7mg/I NO'3, and 49.6ms/cm conductivity. The water hardness and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are respectively 20.5mg/l and fi.fi. The total hardness, Ca2+, S042' are higher for the water draining the carbonate rock environs, while the TDS, Na*, conductivity and Cl" are greater in the basement rock areas. Hydrochemical parameters in the piper trilinear diagram, as well as the Gibbs plot,


Throughout the history of humanity, water has always sustained life and communities and the quality of available water is essentially an index of the living standard of any society. In particular, the 1

respectively suggest that the water is of sodium bicarbonate facies, and dissolved solids are mostly products of weathering.

Application of R-mode factor analysis suggests that the main components of the water characteristics are related to hydrological, lithological and environmental controls. The factor containing CO.,2- and HCOj", is derived from the carbonate rocks in the area, whereas Na+ and K+ which are possibly transported in solution as base exchange of clay minerals, notably characterize the basement rocks. The group showing enrichment in Cl , Mg2* and NO " is considered to be associated with environmental control, through precipitation of meteoric water, while the presence of S042" is linkable to the aeration of sulfide minerals in the area.

On the whole, the water is slightly acidic with low sodium hazard. It therefore satisfies the World Health Organisation (WHO) standards for domestic, agricultural and other industrial uses requiring usual treatment such as filtration and disinfection.

Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
Overall Rating


5 Star
4 Star
3 Star
2 Star
1 Star

ELUEZE, A (2021). Hydrochemical Assessment Of Surface Water In Part Of Southeastern Nigeria. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/hydrochemical-assessment-of-surface-water-in-part-of-southeastern-nigeria

MLA 8th

ELUEZE, A.A "Hydrochemical Assessment Of Surface Water In Part Of Southeastern Nigeria" Afribary. Afribary, 21 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/hydrochemical-assessment-of-surface-water-in-part-of-southeastern-nigeria. Accessed 23 Jul. 2024.


ELUEZE, A.A . "Hydrochemical Assessment Of Surface Water In Part Of Southeastern Nigeria". Afribary, Afribary, 21 Apr. 2021. Web. 23 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/hydrochemical-assessment-of-surface-water-in-part-of-southeastern-nigeria >.


ELUEZE, A.A . "Hydrochemical Assessment Of Surface Water In Part Of Southeastern Nigeria" Afribary (2021). Accessed July 23, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/hydrochemical-assessment-of-surface-water-in-part-of-southeastern-nigeria

Document Details
A.A ELUEZE Field: Hydrogeology Type: Thesis 14 PAGES (7005 WORDS) (pdf)