The effect of shade and oven drying on the nutrient and microbial quality of lady’s finger okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)

Marcelina Ikwu 89 PAGES (16054 WORDS) Project
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Non-leafy vegetables are highly perishable products and require good processing treatment to prevent post-harvest losses and non-bioavailable nutrient in dry or processed food. This study was carried out to determine the effect of shade and oven drying on the nutrient and microbial quality of lady’s finger okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Proximate, mineral, vitamin and Anti nutrient composition of Okra were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that edible portion of the fresh sample contained moisture 86.82, ash 2.70, Protein 2.53, Fat 0.21, Fiber 3.22 and carbohydrate 4.52. The proximate composition (%/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: moisture, protein, fat, fiber ash and carbohydrate/dry matter 9.11, 15.98, 7.41, 4.57, 3.1, 56.90 (shade dried), and 13.71, 15.31, 2.06, 4.37, 3.47 and 6.08 (oven dried). The mineral concentrations (mg/100 g) were also significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium 367.3, 2.39, 168.3, 186(shade dried), and 424.3, 2.57, 184, 240 (oven dried). The vitamin concentration (mg/100g) were also significantly (P<0.05) varied and ranged: vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin B9, and Vitamin K respectively 2.99µg, 0.61, 0.23,& 0.13 (shade dried) and 2.40µg, 0.49, 0.24, and 0.16 (oven dried) on dry weight bases. Shade dried sample had the highest value of protein, fat and fiber while oven dried had the highest ash and carbohydrate (P<0.05). Calcium, potassium, iron and magnesium content of oven dried sample was significantly highest than the shade dried sample (P<0.05). Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Vitamin B9 content of shade dried sample is significantly (P<0.05) higher than oven dried sample. From the result it shows that shade dried sample had the highest total bacterial and total fungal count (2.1x104and 1.4x105) than oven dried sample (3.6x103 and 7.0x104). Base on the result it can be said that this product is safe for human consumption. The results of the study revealed that fresh okra has high value of vitamin than dried product, but dried Okra contain appreciable amount of vital nutrients like protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, magnesium and potassium more than fresh okra and low in anti-nutrient contents with high mineral bioavailability. Therefore, food should be dried to extent it keeping quality, and increase in the production and consumption of these nutrient-rich indigenous Okra pods will help to supplement/formulate the diets and alleviate the problems associated with malnutrition in the country. Shade drying method is recommended for retaining vital nutrient than oven drying.TABLE OD CONTENT

Title page ……………………………………………………………..i

Declaration ……………………………………………………………..ii

Certification ……………………………………………………………..iii

Dedication …………………………………………………………………iv

Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………v

Table of content…………………………………………………………….vii

List of figures……………………………………………………………….xi

List of tables………………………………………………………………. xii

Abstract…………………………………………………………………….xii

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………1

Background of the study…………………………………………….......1

Statement of the problem………………………………………………..5

Objective of the study…………………………………………………..6

Significant of the study…………………………………………………6

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Okra…………………………………………………………………….8

Origin of okra / Description…………………………………………….9

Health benefit of okra…………………………………………………..11

Uses/economic important of okra………………………………………15

Nutritional composition of okra…………………………………..........15

2.5.1 Proximate composition of okra………………………………………18

2.5.2 Mineral composition of okra………………………………………..24

2.5.3 Vitamin composition of okra……………………………………….32

2.6 Anti-nutrient composition of okra…………………………………….35

2.7 Method of drying……………………………………………………...35

2.7.1 Oven drying…………………………………………………………36

2.7.2 S hade drying………………………………………………………..36

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 MATERAL AND METHOD

3.1 Sample procurement………………………………………………......37

3.2 Sample preparation……………………………………………………38

3.3 Proximate composition ………………………………………………40

3.3.1 Moisture Determination…………………………………………....40

3.3.2 Ash Determination………………………………………………....40

3.3.3 Protein Determination……………………………………………...40

3.3.4 Fat Determination………………………………………………….41

3.3.5 Fiber Determination ……………………………………………….41

3.3.6 Carbohydrate Determination………………………………… …...41

3.4 Minerals composition ……………………………………………….42

3.4.1 Calcium Determination……………………………………………42

3.4.2 Iron Determination………………………………………………...42

3.4.3 Potassium Determination………………………………………….43

3.4.4 Magnesium determination …………………………………… 43

3.5 Vitamins composition …………………………………………..44

3.5.1 Vitamin A Determination……………………………………...44

3.5.2 Vitamin C Determination……………………………………...44

3.5.3 Vitamin B9 Determination…………………………………….45

3.5.4 Vitamin K Determination……………………………………..45

3.6 Anti-nutrient Determination…………………………………….45

3.6.1 Phytate Determination………………………………………...45

3.6.2 Lectin Determination…………………………………………46

3.7 Microbiological Analysis……………………………………….46

3.7.1 Total Plate Count……………………………………………..46

3.7.2 Total Fungal Count…………………………………………...47

3.8 Statistical analysis………………………………………………47

CHAPETR FOUR

4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Result……………………………………………………………….48

4.1.1 Proximate composition…………………………………………...48

4.1.2 Mineral composition………………………………………………50

4.1.3 Vitamin composition………………………………………………52

4.1.4 Anti-nutrient composition…………………………………………54

4.1.5 Microbiological Analysis………………………………………….56

4.2 Discussion……………………………………………………………58

4.2.1 Proximate composition…………………………………………….58

4.2.2 Mineral composition……………………………………………….59

4.2.3 Vitamin composition……………………………………………….60

4.2.4 Anti-nutrient composition………………………………………….60

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary……………………………………………………………..62

5.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………62

5.3 Recommendation……………………………………………………..63

REFFERNCES

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APA

Marcelina, I (2019). The effect of shade and oven drying on the nutrient and microbial quality of lady’s finger okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Afribary.com: Retrieved March 04, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/ikwu-marcelina

MLA 8th

Ikwu, Marcelina. "The effect of shade and oven drying on the nutrient and microbial quality of lady’s finger okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 01 Apr. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/ikwu-marcelina . Accessed 04 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

Ikwu, Marcelina. "The effect of shade and oven drying on the nutrient and microbial quality of lady’s finger okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 01 Apr. 2019. Web. 04 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/ikwu-marcelina >.

Chicago

Ikwu, Marcelina. "The effect of shade and oven drying on the nutrient and microbial quality of lady’s finger okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed March 04, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/ikwu-marcelina