INTEGRATION OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND INDUCED POLARIZATION FOR SUBSURFACE IMAGING AROUND IHE POND, NSUKKA, ANAMBRA BASIN

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ABSTRACT

Integration of 2D geophysical methods, Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP) were used to study the subsurface geology and structures around Ihe pond, Nsukka in Anambra basin. The research work has delineated the geologic structures and strata responsible for the water in the pond, and determined the origin of the Pond. Three 2D resisitivity profiles of maximum spread lengths of 500, 400 and 500m were run around the pond. Horizontal profiling, using Wenner array configuration was employed in the data acquisition for both methods. Four faults designated Apo 1, 2, 3 and 4 with colour codes, blue, red, green and black and their fault zones were mapped. The faults were located at points 224, 265 and 325m on ER model line one, and at points 170, 205, 275 and 296m on ER model line two. Three lithologic units of consolidated coarse, medium grained, fine-grained sandstones and saturated zones were identified on the ER and IP Psuedosections. The ER and IP values from the three profiles range from 136 - 21559Wm and -81.0 to 240Ms respectively. The faults zone acts as water pathway to the pond. Inverse chargeability models established the faults zones, as large gradients of chargeability. Correlation of strata to known formation depicts the presence of consolidated coarse to medium grained sandstones, while known exposed fault was correlated to Apo 3 fault using coordinates readings. Analysed sample of water from the pond shows low Salinity and sulfides. Soil sample oxide content was also analysed to compliment the geology, and the result shows that Aluminum oxide (Al203), Silicon oxide (Si02), Ferrous oxide (Fe203), Zinc oxide (Zn0) and Sodium oxide (Na203) are relatively low and are in conformity with characteristics of laterite.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS     PAGES

TITLE PAGE - - - - - - - - - - i


CERTIFICATION - - - - - - - - - ii


DEDICATION - - - - - - - - - iii


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - - - - - - - - iv


TABLE OF CONTENTS - - - - - - - - v


LIST OF FIGURES - - - - - - - - - x


LIST OF TABLE - - - - - - - - xii


ABSTRACT - - - - - - - - - - xiii


CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 1

1.2 Study Location - - - - - - - - 2

1.3 Physiography - - - - - - - - 3

1.4 Aims and Objectives - - - - - - - 6

1.5 Literature Review - - - - - - - - 6

1.6 Methodology - - - - - - - - 9

1.7 Data Gathering - - - - - - - - 9

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 General Geology of Anambra Basin - - - - - 11

2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 11

2.2 Geological Setting of Anambra Basin - - - - - 13

2.3 Sedimentology - - - - - - - - 15

2.4 Regional Stratigraphic Sequence - - - - - - 17

2.5 Tectonic Setting and Geologic Evolution - - - - - 19

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Basic concepts of  Electrical Resistivity and Induced Polarization  - - 24


3.1 Introduction to Resistivity Method - - - - - 24

3.2 Electrical Properties of Rocks - - - - - - 25

3.3 The Relationship Between Geology and Resistivi - - - - 29

3.4 Basic Theory of Electrical Resisitivity Method - - - - 32

3.4.1 Apparent Resistivity   - - - - - - - - 35

3.5 Electrode Arrays - - - - - - - - 36

3.5.1 Schlumberger Array - - - - - - - - 37

3.5.2 Wenner Array - - - - - - - - - 39

3.5.3 Dipole – Dipole Array -- - - - - - - - 41

3.6 Uses, Advantages and Disadvantages of ER Technique - - - 43

3.6.1 Uses of Electrical Resistivity - - - - - - 43

3.6.2 Advantages of Electrical Resistivity Technique - - - 43

3.6.3 Disadvantages of Electrical Resistivity Technique - - - 44

3.7 Introduction  to Induced Polarization - - - - - 44

3.8 Sources of Induced Polarization Effects - - - - - 45

3.8.1 Membrane Polarization - - - - - - - 45

3.8.2 Electrode Polarization - - - - - - - 47

3.9 Induced Polarization Measurement - - - - - 50

3.9.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 50

3.9.2 Time Domain Measurement - - - - - - 50

3.9.3 Frequency Domain IP Measurement - - - - - 54

3.10 Relative Phase Shift and Phase Components - - - - 57

3.11 Induced Polarization Response- - - - - - - 59

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Materials and Methods - - - - - - - 65

4.1 Materials - - - - - - - - - 65

4.1.1 Terrameter SAS/1000 - - - - - - - 65

4.1.2 Electrodes - - - - - - - - - 68

4.1.3 Cables - - - - - - - - - 68

4.1.4 Hammer - - - - - - - - - 68

4.1.5 Battery - - - - - - - - - 69

4.1.6 Global positioning system - - - - - - - 69

4.1.7 Rope and Measuring Tape - - - - - - - 69

4.1.8 Cutlass - - - - - - - - - 69

4.1.9 Phones - - - - - - - - - 69

4.2 Methods - - - - - - - - - 71

4.2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 71

4.2.2 Horizontal profiling (Wenner Array) - - - - - 71

4.3 Data Acquisition - - - - - - - - 72

4.4 Data Processing - - - - - - - - 72

4.5 Data Interpretation - - - - - - - - 73

4.5.1 Fault Description - - - - - - - - 73

4.5.2 Mapping of Strata - - - - - - - - 76

4.6 Geologic Resources and laboratory analysis - - - - 76

4.6.1 Laterite - - - - - - - - - 76

4.6.2 Sandstone - - - - - - - - - 78

4.6.3 Clay - - - - - - - - - - 78

4.6.4 Coal - - - - - - - - - - 78

4.6.5 Hydrogeology - - - - - - - - 79

4.6.6 Water - - - - - - - - - 80

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Data presentation and discussion of Results - - - - 82

5.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 82

5.2 Discussion of Faults and Strata on figure 5.1A - - - - 82

5.2.1 Faults - - - - - - - - - 82

5.2.2 Strata 84

5.3 Discussion of Fault Zones/Strata on Figure 5.1B - - - - 84

5.3.1 Faults Zones - - - - - - - - - 84

5.3.2 Strata - - - - - - - - - 84

5.4 Discussion of Faults/Strata on Figure 5.2A - - - - - 85

5.4.1 Faults - - - - - - - - - 85

5.4.2 Strata - - - - - - - - - 85

5.5 Discussion of Fault zone/Strata on Figure 5.2B - - - - 87

5.5.1 Fault Zones - - - - - - - - - 87

5.5.2 Strata - - - - - - - - - 87

5.6 Discussion of Strata on Figure 5.3A - - - - - - 87

5.7        Discussion of Strata on Figure 5.3B - - - - - - 89

5.8 Known Formation - - - - - - - - 89

5.9 Correlation of Strata to Known Formation - - - - - 92

5.10 Correlation of fault to Known Fault - - - - - 92

5.11 Water Sampling Results - - - - - - - 95

5.12 Soil Sampling Results - - - - - - - 95

CHAPTER SIX

8.0 Conclusions and Recommendations - - - - - - 97

8.1 Conclusions - - - - - - - - - 97

8.2 Recommendations - - - - - - - - 99 

References - - - - - - - - - - 100

Appendix 1 - - - - - - - - - - 106

Appendix 2 - - - - - - - - - - 107

Appendix 3 - - - - - - - - - - 108

Appendix 4 - - - - - - - - - - 109

Appendix 5 - - - - - - - - - - 110

Appendix 6 - - - - - - - - - - 111

Appendix 7 - - - - - - - - - - 113

Appendix 8 - - - - - - - - - - 115


LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 1.1: Map of Nigeria showing the location of study area - - - 4

Figure 1.2: Base map of the Study Area, showing Ihe Pond, accessibility and the

 three profiles - - - - - - - - 5

Figure 1.3: Summary of stratigraphic data on the Palaeogene sucession in

                  Southeastern Nigeria - - - - - - - 10

Figure 2.1: Geologic map of Southern Nigeria showing Anambra Basin - - 12

Figure 2.2:  Map of Benue Trough and Related Athlantic Fracture Zone - - 14

Figure 2.3: The Sedimentary and Stratigraphy of the Anambra Basin, Lower

 Benue Trough and Afikpo Basin - - - - - 16

Figure 2.4: Correlation Chart for Early Cretaceous-Tertiary Strata in 

Southern Nigeria - - - - - - - 21

Figure 2.5: Tectonic map of southern Nigeria - - - - - 22

Figure 3.1: Principle of Ohm’s law - - - - - - - 26

Figure 3.2:  Equipotentials and Current lines for a pair of current Electrodes

                    A and B on a Homogeneous half-space - - - - 34

Figure 3.3:  Schlumberger Array - - - - - - - 38

Figure 3.4:  Wenner Array - - - - - - - - 40

Figure 3.5: Dipole – Dipole Array - - - - - - - 42

Figure 3.6:  Electrolytic flow in upper pore, electrode polarization in the lower pore 49

Figure 3.7: Time Domain IP Waveform  - - - - - - 52


Figure 3.8: Different Measures of  Time-Domain IP effect. (a) Comparison of V(t), with  

                   V (b)     Integral of V(t) over a Time Interval - - - - 53

Figure 3.9:   Frequency Domain IP Waveform  - - - - - - 55

Figure 3.10: Equipotential electrical Circuit to Simulate the effect - - - 56

Figure 3.11: Phase Shift Diagram - - - - - - - 59

Figure 4.1: Photograph Showing  SAS/1000, Four Reels of wire, Battery, Tape

                   and Electrode during data Acquisition - - - - - 67

Figure 4.2: Global Positioning System (GPS) - - - - - 70

Figure 4.3: Base-Map showing the Interpreted Faults across profile 

one and two - - - - - - - - 75

Figure 5.1A:  Inverse Resistivity Model of Line one - - - - 83

Figure 5.1B: Inverse Chargeability Model of Line one - - - - 83

Figure 5.2A:  Inverse Resistivity Model of Line two - - - - 86

Figure 5.2B: Inverse Chargeability Model of Line two - - - - 86

Figure 5.3A:   Inverse Resistivity model of Line three - - - - 88

Figure 5.3B Inverse Chargeability Model of Line three - - - - 88

Figure 5.4: Study Outcrop around Ihe Pond in Nsukka Formation - - 90

Figure 5.5:  Correlation of Strata to Known Formation - - - - 91

Figure 5.6:  Correlation of Fault to Known fault - - - - - 93

Figure 5.7:  The Extension of the Known fault (Downthrown) - - - 94




LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1: Resistivities of some common Rocks, Minerals, and Chemicals  - - 31

Table 3.2: Chargeability of Different Minerals - - - - - 61

Table 3.3: Chargeability of Various Minerals and Rocks - - - - 62

Table 3.4: Chargeability of various Materials - - - - 64

Table 5.1:  Water Sampling Results    - - - - - - 95

Table 5.2: Soil Sampling Results  - - - - - - - 96 



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APA

IGHOVOYINVWIN, O (2022). INTEGRATION OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND INDUCED POLARIZATION FOR SUBSURFACE IMAGING AROUND IHE POND, NSUKKA, ANAMBRA BASIN. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/integration-of-electrical-resistivity-and-induced-polarization-for-subsurface-imaging-around-ihe-pond-nsukka-anambra-basin

MLA 8th

IGHOVOYINVWIN, ODUDURU "INTEGRATION OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND INDUCED POLARIZATION FOR SUBSURFACE IMAGING AROUND IHE POND, NSUKKA, ANAMBRA BASIN" Afribary. Afribary, 19 May. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/integration-of-electrical-resistivity-and-induced-polarization-for-subsurface-imaging-around-ihe-pond-nsukka-anambra-basin. Accessed 18 Aug. 2022.

MLA7

IGHOVOYINVWIN, ODUDURU . "INTEGRATION OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND INDUCED POLARIZATION FOR SUBSURFACE IMAGING AROUND IHE POND, NSUKKA, ANAMBRA BASIN". Afribary, Afribary, 19 May. 2022. Web. 18 Aug. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/integration-of-electrical-resistivity-and-induced-polarization-for-subsurface-imaging-around-ihe-pond-nsukka-anambra-basin >.

Chicago

IGHOVOYINVWIN, ODUDURU . "INTEGRATION OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND INDUCED POLARIZATION FOR SUBSURFACE IMAGING AROUND IHE POND, NSUKKA, ANAMBRA BASIN" Afribary (2022). Accessed August 18, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/integration-of-electrical-resistivity-and-induced-polarization-for-subsurface-imaging-around-ihe-pond-nsukka-anambra-basin