Inter-Population Craniometrics of Adult Male Subantarctic fur Seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis)

Abstract:

Craniometrics is a very reliable and effective tool for studying the difference in animal morphology. Previously, traditional craniometrics were conducted with the aid of calipers in two dimensional format (2D). Such discounting of actual three-dimensional 3D form may result in loss of some relevant and critical information leading to compromised and unreliable results for studies such as population variation analysis of morphology. The employment of 3D photogrammetry allows a close to complete representation of the physical dimensions of a specimen. The use of photogrammetry in mammalogy concentrated on measuring of body size/mass, but little has been done on animal skull delineation through photogrammetry. This dissertation describes advances in morphometrics and 3D photogrammetry application in craniometrics, investigates the craniometric variation between closely related species (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis), and A. tropicalis interpopulation craniometrics between two geographically distinct populations, at Marion Island and Gough Island, using Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate, high resolution 3D skull models. A total of 117 3D models were created from adult male fur seal crania, and 16 traditional measurements recorded, using specimens archived at the Port Elizabeth Museum, Bayworld, South Africa. Sixteen linear measurements, (8 caliper recordings and 8 3D recordings) were used for PMSc® methodology testing, 16 (A. gazella n= 8 and A. tropicalis n= 8) used for species cranial comparison and 85 (Marion Island n= 54 and Gough Island n= 31) used for interpopulation variation. The craniometric variations were analysed using the Statistica® v11 software package, StatSoft, Inc. The comparison between linear traditional caliper cranial measurements and 3D measurements produced significantly similar results, attesting to the accuracy of the PMSc® 3D model production. Photomodeler Scanner® therefore produces accurate and high resolution 3D models of skulls which allow 3D measurements. I predicted that PMSc® would detect the existing significant differences between the skulls of adult male A. gazella and A. tropicalis and modelled and compared their 3D models, and I further predicted that PMSc® would detect any existing differences between the skulls of A. tropicalis from Gough and Marion islands by comparison of their 3D models. The Gough Island and Marion Island A. tropicalis populations could not be discriminated based on linear 3D cranial I conclude that PMSc® is a reliable and effective tool for accurate and high resolution 3D modelling. The present study confirms previous findings and contributes additional evidence that suggests that adult A. tropicalis males from Gough Island and Marion Island cannot be discriminated based on linear measurements of craniometrics, and deviates from the Bergmanian rule as applied to large mammals. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the use of PMSc® and 3D modelling in morphometrics. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for PMSc® 3D modelling in promoting accurate digitization of museum specimens and creation of online museum libraries. This research will serve as a baseline for future studies and usefulness of PMSc® in 3D morpho-volumetric measurements.
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APA

Claude, M (2024). Inter-Population Craniometrics of Adult Male Subantarctic fur Seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/inter-population-craniometrics-of-adult-male-subantarctic-fur-seals-arctocephalus-tropicalis

MLA 8th

Claude, Moshobane "Inter-Population Craniometrics of Adult Male Subantarctic fur Seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis)" Afribary. Afribary, 03 May. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/inter-population-craniometrics-of-adult-male-subantarctic-fur-seals-arctocephalus-tropicalis. Accessed 15 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

Claude, Moshobane . "Inter-Population Craniometrics of Adult Male Subantarctic fur Seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis)". Afribary, Afribary, 03 May. 2024. Web. 15 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/inter-population-craniometrics-of-adult-male-subantarctic-fur-seals-arctocephalus-tropicalis >.

Chicago

Claude, Moshobane . "Inter-Population Craniometrics of Adult Male Subantarctic fur Seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis)" Afribary (2024). Accessed June 15, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/inter-population-craniometrics-of-adult-male-subantarctic-fur-seals-arctocephalus-tropicalis