Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Cancer Among Female Students

OJONUGWA BEAUTY 69 PAGES (16552 WORDS) Project
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1.0       INTRODUCTION

Cervical cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of death of cancer among women in developing countries (WHO, 2005). Globally, cervical cancer is the fifth most-deadly cancer in women (WHO, 2006). The global estimates are 452,000 new cases and more than 234,000 deaths from cervical cancer annually 80% of deaths occur in developing countries and that has only 5% of the global cancer resources. The incidence in the tropics is estimated to be about 40-70 per 100,000 (Sulaman U, Randawa A and Kabir M, 2006). It affects about 16 per 100,000 women per year and kills about 9 per 100,000 per year (Dolson L, 2001).

Cervical cancer is becoming increasingly important in developing countries due to the improvement in the control of infectious diseases leading to a decline in deaths as a result of infectious diseases.

Cervical cancer generally develops slowly and has readily detectable and treatable precursor condition (severe dysplasia carcinoma insitu). It can be prevented through screening and treating women with identified abnormalities.   In many western countries, invasive cancer incidence and mortality has reduced by as much as 90% through screening programmes based on cytological examination of papanicolaou (pap) smears and treatment of precancerous conditions.

Alnorlu R., Bango, Odomelum, Eghale and Abudu (2000) stated that screening for cervical cancer is among the most promising of the available prevention possibilities, unfortunately, the high incidence of cervical cancer is partly due to lack of effective screening programmes and ignorance among others. Cervical cancer is the 8th most common cancer in American women. More than 13,500 new patients develop invasive cancer and women in United States die from the advanced form of this disease annually (WHO, 2006)

In Africa, carcinoma of the cervix is the most common female genital cancer, and the second cause of death from cancer among women in developing countries. Most of the patients succumb after severe genital mutilation. However, this killer disease is preventable because its occurrence can be predicted by simple and relatively affordable procedures. The disease is predated by pre-malignant changes lasting over 15-20 years and is associated with sexual activity. The risk increased with early onset of sexual intercourse. The human papilloma virus (HPV) which is sexually transmitted is implicated in the etiology. These facts suggest that targeting all sexually active women from screening could go a long way in preventing the occurrence of the disease. A welcome development, is that the disease is now known to be preventable as the implementation of population-based screening programme and treatment of pre-invasive disease have resulted in 75% fall in the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries.

Cervical cancer is a disease that could affect any sexually active women. It is the second common cancer worldwide, next only to breast cancer in women under 45 years of age, whereas it also affects a significant number of women over that age. It is estimated that approximately 40 women die every day of infiltrative cervical cancer. Every year about 500,000 deaths. And 8% of total cases occur in developing countries  (WHO, 2006). It is estimated that over 1 million women worldwide currently have cervical cancer, most of who have not been diagnosed nor have no access to treatment 

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION


CHAPTER TWO 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


CHAPTER THREE 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


CHAPTER FOUR 

DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION


CHAPTER FIVE 

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION


References

Questionnaire 


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APA

OJONUGWA, B (2020). Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Cancer Among Female Students. Afribary.com: Retrieved September 19, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-cervical-cancer-among-female-students

MLA 8th

BEAUTY, OJONUGWA. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Cancer Among Female Students" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 25 Aug. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-cervical-cancer-among-female-students . Accessed 19 Sep. 2020.

MLA7

BEAUTY, OJONUGWA. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Cancer Among Female Students". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 25 Aug. 2020. Web. 19 Sep. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-cervical-cancer-among-female-students >.

Chicago

BEAUTY, OJONUGWA. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Cancer Among Female Students" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed September 19, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-cervical-cancer-among-female-students