Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Radiographers Towards Tuberculosis Cases In Three Tertiary Hospitals In Enugu State, Nigeria.

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ABSTRACT
The study explores the knowledge, attitude and practices of radiographers towards tuberculosis cases in three tertiary hospitals in Enugu State, Nigeria. It is a descriptive cross-sectional study with the use of questionnaire to obtain information from the radiographers. The survey was carried out between March and July, 2012. This assessed the knowledge, attitude, practice of universal precaution rule and the protective measures adopted when handling a tuberculosis case. A total of 52 radiographers were used for the study. Out of the 52 questionnaire distributed, 50 were duly completed and returned recording 96% return rate. The indices used to assess the knowledge are: symptoms, causation, mode of transmission, prevention and how Tb can be diagnosed. For attitude, the indices include: feelings when attending to tuberculosis patient and reactions if asked to attend to TB cases on daily basis. The result showed that radiographers have good knowledge, positive attitude and good practice towards TB patients’. 71.01% of the respondents knew TB can be transmitted through droplets and 94% also knew that TB is caused by bacteria. The common known symptom by the respondent was weight loss (23.5%) and clean house/environment (41.4%) has a way of preventing TB. More than half of the radiographers (54%) have empathy for the patient with TB when attending to them. Moreso, 84% will gladly accept if asked to attend to TB cases on regular basis. 84% of the radiographers follow universal precaution in their in their practice. Keeping a distance (66%), Hand washing before and after attending to a patient (60%) and ventilating the room (56%) were the common protective measures adopted by radiographers to protect themselves from TB infection.


List of Tables
Table: 1 Age and Sex distribution of respondent ------------------------------- 31
Table: 2 Responses on Educational Qualification and place of work of respondents ----------------------32
Table: 3 Responses of respondents’ number of years of practice ------------ 32
Table: 4 Responses on the mode of transmission of tuberculosis -------------- 33
Table: 5 Response of the symptoms of tuberculosis ------------------------------34
Table: 6 Respondents answer on the causation of TB ---------------------------34
Table: 7 Responses on how TB can be diagnosed ---------------------------------35
Table: 8 Responses on the way TB can be prevented ----------------------------- 35
Table: 9 Respondents’ feeling when attending to TB patients’ ------------------36
Table: 10 Respondents’ reaction if asked to attend to TB patient on regular basis ----------------------- 37
Table: 11 Percentage outcome on if radiographers follow universal precaution rule in their practice  -------------- 38
Table: 12 Responses on the measures radiographers adopt to protect themselves from TB infection  ------------------------ 38

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page -------------------------------------i
Approval Page ------------------------------ii
Certification ---------------------------------iii
Dedication -----------------------------------iv
Acknowledgement --------------------------v
Abstract --------------------------------------vi
List of Tables -------------------------------vii
Table of Content --------------------------viii

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction ------------------------------1
1.1 Background of Study ------------------ 1
1.2 Statement of Problem ----------------- 3
1.3 Objectives of Study ---------------------3
1.4 Significance of Study ------------------ 3
1.5 Scope of Study ------------------------- 4
1.6 Operational definition of--------------- 4
1.7 Review of related Literatures --------- 5

CHAPTER TWO
2.0Theoretical Background -------------- 17
2.1 History of Tuberculosis -------------- 17
2.2 Pulmonary tuberculosis ---------------18
2.2.1 Types of Pulmonary tuberculosis --------------------------------------18
2.2.2 Symptoms of PTB -----------19
2.2.3 Possible Complication ------20
2.2.4 Risk factors -------------------20
2.2.5 Prognosis --------------------21
2.2.6 Epidemiology---------------- 21
2.3 Mycobacterium Tuberculosis ------- 22
2.3.1 Mechanisms and transmission -----------------23
2.3.2 Pathogenesis -----------------23
2.4 Diagnosis of Tuberculosis ----------- 24
2.5 Prevention of Tuberculosis ---------- 26
2.6 Treatment of Tuberculosis ---------- 27

CHAPTER THREE
3.0Research Methodology --------------- 28
3.1 Research Design ---------------------- 28
3.2 Target Population --------------------- 28
3.3 Sampling Method --------------------- 28
3.4 Instrument for Data collection ------ 29
3.5 Procedure for Data collection ------- 29
3.6 Method of Data Analysis ------------ 30

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0Data Analysis and Presentation ------31
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion ----------------------------- 40
5.2 Summary of findings ----------------- 42
5.4 Limitation of study ------------------- 43
5.5 Recommendation-Area of further study ---------------------------------------- 43
5.6 Conclusion ----------------------------- 43
References
Appendix

INTRODUCTION
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important diseases that are responsible for high mortality in the developing world. It disproportionately affects people in resource poor-settings particularly in Africa and Asia with Nigeria ranking 10th among the 22 high burden tuberculosis countries in the world [1]. Reports have shown that the prevalence of TB increased terribly in 1985 when the World Health Organization (WHO) considered it a global emergency and requested more serious attention be directed to this problem [2,3]. Tuberculosis being a contagious but curable disease is transmitted when an infected individual with active Mycobacterium TB coughs or sneeze, thereby contaminating the air such that anyone that breathe it get infected. Patients with this infection visit the hospital for proper diagnosis and treatment thereby coming across different health workers of which the radiographer is one of them.
The knowledge of tuberculosis among practicing Radiographers refers to information or awareness gained through experience or education. This includes the mode of transmission, symptoms, organs it affects and drug therapy treatment. Radiographers with enough knowledge about tuberculosis cases stand a better chance of preventing themselves against the infection than those without adequate knowledge. This is because a Radiographer that is knowledgeable enough will attend to patients  giving the patient the maximum care he/she requires according to the code of ethics of his practice and still prevent him/herself from being infected. This shows that the knowledge of Radiographers needs to be adequate about tuberculosis cases so that this infection contraction will be reduced and this is one of the aims of this study, to ascertain the knowledge Radiographers in tertiary hospitals within Enugu urban area.
The term attitude refers to an individual’s like or dislike for an item. Attitude can be positive, negative or neutral views of an “attitude object” i.e a person, behavior or event. The level of awareness about Tuberculosis among radiographers influences their attitude towards patients infected with tuberculosis. The attitude of a radiographer has a member of the health team towards patients with tuberculosis needs to be positive according to it code of ethics, so that he/she( the radiographer) would be able to discharge his/her clinical responsibilities appropriately. Poor attitude to patients often lead to repeat of investigation, thereby increasing radiation dose to the patient. It can also send a signal of stigmatization, making many of the patients to die in silence instead of coming to the hospital for proper diagnosis and treatment. With this happening the goal of WHO to halve the TB prevalence and death rate by 2015 [4] will not be achieved. In the other hand, if a good attitude is expressed to these patients, they will feel comfort and in return give their maximum co-operation, which will also help the radiographer get a radiograph of high diagnostic quality.
Knowing that TB is very infectious, a protective or preventive practice measures need to be undertaken when attending to TB cases, so that radiographers will not contract the infection at discharge of their clinical responsibilities. It is important that the practice of radiographers should be one that protects and prevents them from this infection, tuberculosis. 
Hence the researcher aim of carrying out this research is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of radiographers towards TB cases in three tertiary hospitals within Enugu urban.

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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Radiographers Towards Tuberculosis Cases In Three Tertiary Hospitals In Enugu State, Nigeria.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practices-of-radiographers-towards-tuberculosis-cases-in-three-tertiary-hospitals-in-enugu-state-nigeria-5260

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Radiographers Towards Tuberculosis Cases In Three Tertiary Hospitals In Enugu State, Nigeria." Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practices-of-radiographers-towards-tuberculosis-cases-in-three-tertiary-hospitals-in-enugu-state-nigeria-5260. Accessed 10 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Radiographers Towards Tuberculosis Cases In Three Tertiary Hospitals In Enugu State, Nigeria.". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 10 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practices-of-radiographers-towards-tuberculosis-cases-in-three-tertiary-hospitals-in-enugu-state-nigeria-5260 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Radiographers Towards Tuberculosis Cases In Three Tertiary Hospitals In Enugu State, Nigeria." Afribary (2018). Accessed December 10, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practices-of-radiographers-towards-tuberculosis-cases-in-three-tertiary-hospitals-in-enugu-state-nigeria-5260