Leachate, Groundwater, Surface Stream, Treated Water and Soil Characteristics of the Vicinity of a Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite at Uyo Metropolis, Akwa – Ibom State, Nigeria.

Abstract These findings documented the physical, chemical and heavy metal contents in leachate, borehole water, surface stream, treated water and soil samples around the municipal solid waste dumpsite at Uyo metropolis, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. Samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons 2010/2011. The samples were analysed for the following parameters: heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb), anions (PO3 4,SO2- 4,Cl- , NO3, NH+ 4-N), essential metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolve oxygen (DO), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, salinity, turbidity and conductivity. The results revealed that most of the parameters recorded for the leachate samples significantly exceeded the WHO international standards for drinking water in both seasons. Fe (47.33 and 113.13mg(L), Cd (2.29 and 14.47mg/l), Cu (5.78 and 35.87mg/l), Cr (1.63 and 7.63mg/l), Pb (12.33 and 31.13mg/l), Zn (17.33, and 34.5mg/l), BOD (52.2 and 159.6mg/l), Cl- (284.37 and 536mg/l), NO3 (74.03 and 87.83mg/l), TDS (1709.5 and 2043mg/l) and DO (1.73 and 2.73mg/l). In leachate, all the heavy metals, Cl- , COD, salinity, and conductivity contents showed significant increase (P

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page - - - - - - - - i

Declaration - - - - - - - - ii

Certification - - - - - - - - iii

Dedication - - - - - - - - iv

Acknowledgements - - - - - - - v

Abstract - - - - - - - - vii

Table of contents - - - - - - - viii

List of Tables - - - - - - - - xiii

List of Figures - - - - - - - - xv

List of plates - - - - - - - - xvii

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background of the study - - - - 1

1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - 7

1.3 Objectives of study - - - - 8

1.3.1 General objectives - - - - 8

1.3.2 Specific objectives - - - - 8

1.4 Expected benefits of the study - - - - 9

1.5 Research questions - - - - 9

1.6 Scope of the study - - - - 10

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Meaning of waste - - - - 11

2.1.1 Solid waste - - - - 11

ix

2.2 Solid waste dumpsite - - - - - 14

2.2.1 Open dumps system - - - - - 14

2.2.2 Sanitary landfill system - - - - - 15

2.3 Waste management - - - - - 15

2.3.1 Landfills - - - - - 16

2.3.2 Incineration - - - - - 16

2.3.3 Recycling - - - - - 17

2.4 Leachate - - - - - 17

2.4.1 Leachate production - - - - - 20

2.4.1.1 Influence of Source - - - - - - 20

2.4.1.2 Processes - - - - - - 20

2.4.1.3 Timing of landfill stabilization - - - - 22

2.5 Pollution - - - - - - - - 23

2.5.1 Ancient culture - - - - - 23

2.5.2 Official acknowledgement - - - - 23

2.5.3 Modern awareness -- - - - - 25

2.5.4 Forms of Pollution - - - - - 27

2.6 Water Pollution - - - - - 28

2.6.1 Water pollution Categories - - - - 29

2.6.1.1. Surface Water pollution - - - - - 29

2.6.1.2 Groundwater pollution - - - - - 31

2.6.2 Causes of water pollution - - - - - 31

2.6.2.1 Pathogens - - - - - - 32

x

2.6.2.2 Chemical and other contaminants - - 33

2.6.3 Measurement of water pollution - - 34

2.7 Water quality - - - - - - - 34

2.8 Soil/land pollution - - - - - 33

2.8.1 Causes of soil pollution - - - - 36

2.8.2 Effects - - - - - - - 36

2.8.2.1 Health effects - - - - - - 36

2.8.2.2. Ecosystem effects - - - - - 37

2.8.2.3 Clean up options - - - - - 38

2.9 Review of related studies - - - 39

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 The study area - - - - - 45

3.2 Material and methods - - - - - 47

3.2.1 Sampling - - - - - - - 47

3.2.2 Samples treatment - - - - - - 51

3.2.2.1 Treatment of water samples - - - - 51

3.2.3 Treatment of leachate sample - - - - 51

3.2.4 Treatment of soil sample - - - - - 52

3.2.5 Preparation of stock solutions - - - 52

3.2.6 Chemical analysis - - - - - 52

3.2.6.1 Determination of pH and temperature - 53

3.2.6.2 Determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 53

3.2.6.3 Determination of Dissolved oxygen (DO)- - 53

xi

3.2.6.4 Determination Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD) 54

3.2.6.5 Determination of total dissolved solids (TDS) - 54

3.2.6.6 Determination of Major Anions - - - 55

3.2.6.6.1 Determination of Phosphate (PO43-

) - - 55

3.2.6.6.2 Determination of Nitrate (NO3-

) - - - 55

3.2.6.6.3 Determination of Sulphate (SO42-

) - - 55

3.2.6.6.4 Determination of Chloride (Cl-

) - - - 56

3.2.6.6.5 Determination of nitrite (NO2) - - - 56

3.2.6.6.6 Determination of Ammonium Nitrogen - - 57

3.2.7 Determination of Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) 57

3.2.8 Determination of heavy metals - - - 57

3.3 Data Analysis Technique - - 57

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Means and standard deviations of some physicchemical contents in leachate ground

water, stream water and treated water samples - 58

4.1.1 Mean concentrations of pH temperature turbidity

salinity and conductivity in leachate, groundwater,

stream water and treated water samples - - 58

4.1.2 Mean concentrations of DO, BOD, COD,

Total suspended solids (TSS) and Total

dissolved solids (TDS) in leachate groundwater,

stream water and treated water samples - 69

4.1.3 Mean concentrations of some major anions

In leachate, groundwater, stream water and treated

Water samples - - - - - - - 79

4.1.4 Mean concentrations of essential cations in leachates,

Ground water, treated water and stream water samples 87

xii

4.1.5 Mean concentrations of heavy metals in leachate

Groundwater stream water and treated water

Samples - - - - - - - - 93

4.2 Mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil along

Wastes and non wastes disposal sites - - - 100

4.3 Discussion - - - - - - - 115

4.3.1 Physico-chemical characteristics of leachate,

groundwater, stream water and treated water samples 115

4.3.2 Heavy metal characteristics of soil samples

along wastes and non-wastes disposal sites - - 137

4.4 Spiked samples - - - - - - - 144

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Summary and conclusions - - - - - 150

5.2 Recommendations - - - - - 152

5.3 Contribution to knowledge - - - - - 153

5.4 Suggestion for further works - - - - 153

References




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APA

ORU, W (2022). Leachate, Groundwater, Surface Stream, Treated Water and Soil Characteristics of the Vicinity of a Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite at Uyo Metropolis, Akwa – Ibom State, Nigeria.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/leachate-groundwater-surface-stream-treated-water-and-soil-characteristics-of-the-vicinity-of-a-municipal-solid-waste-dumpsite-at-uyo-metropolis-akwa-ibom-state-nigeria

MLA 8th

ORU, WALTERS "Leachate, Groundwater, Surface Stream, Treated Water and Soil Characteristics of the Vicinity of a Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite at Uyo Metropolis, Akwa – Ibom State, Nigeria." Afribary. Afribary, 19 Oct. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/leachate-groundwater-surface-stream-treated-water-and-soil-characteristics-of-the-vicinity-of-a-municipal-solid-waste-dumpsite-at-uyo-metropolis-akwa-ibom-state-nigeria. Accessed 22 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

ORU, WALTERS . "Leachate, Groundwater, Surface Stream, Treated Water and Soil Characteristics of the Vicinity of a Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite at Uyo Metropolis, Akwa – Ibom State, Nigeria.". Afribary, Afribary, 19 Oct. 2022. Web. 22 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/leachate-groundwater-surface-stream-treated-water-and-soil-characteristics-of-the-vicinity-of-a-municipal-solid-waste-dumpsite-at-uyo-metropolis-akwa-ibom-state-nigeria >.

Chicago

ORU, WALTERS . "Leachate, Groundwater, Surface Stream, Treated Water and Soil Characteristics of the Vicinity of a Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite at Uyo Metropolis, Akwa – Ibom State, Nigeria." Afribary (2022). Accessed July 22, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/leachate-groundwater-surface-stream-treated-water-and-soil-characteristics-of-the-vicinity-of-a-municipal-solid-waste-dumpsite-at-uyo-metropolis-akwa-ibom-state-nigeria