Local Construction Of Battery Powered Dual Face Radiographic Viewing Box With Rotatable Neck And Adjustable Stand

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This construction of battery powered dual face radiographic viewing box with rotatable neck and adjustable stand was carried out within Enugu metropolis.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page---------i
Dedication---------ii
Acknowledgement -------iii
Table of contents-------iv

CHAPTER ONE
Background of study-------1
Introduction---------1
Statement of problem-------3
Purpose of study--------4
Significance of study-------4
Scope of study---------5
Review of related literature------5

CHAPTER TWO
Theoretical background-------10
2.1  Viewing conditions-------10
 Observer and visual acuity------11
Those relating to the illuminator------14
2.2 Features of illuminator boxes------16
2.3 How to carry quality control test for illuminator---17
Direct assessment of surface perspex screen of illuminator--18
Assessment of the surface perspex screen of illuminator using black card. 19
2.4     Care of illuminators-------21
2.5Materials use in construction of illuminator  box--21
Plastic----------21
 Metals--------22
 2.6    Electrical components-------23
 A rechargeable battery------24
A switch---------28
Electrical wire--------33
A choke---------33
Transformer        -------- 35

CHAPTER THREE
Materials and methods------37
3.1      Preliminary steps-------37
3.2     Choice of design-------37
3.3Fabrication of the illuminator housing  --- 38
The head:---------38
Components and systems required:  -----39
3.4 Machinery used in this contruction----39
3.5       Sources of materials------40
Other materials required and reasons------41
 3.6   Fabrication procedure------42
Plate marking and cutting------42
 Folding of plate--------44
Welding---------47
Drilling ---------51
 Filling---------51
Painting---------51
Fabrication of the perspex screen.-----51
 Materials used in the production of the screen---51
Procedure--------- 52
 3.7   Voltage regulator circuit ------52
Circuit operation--------53
The stand and base-------54

CHAPTER   FOUR
4.1   Research findings/ quality control tests----55
4.1.1    Uniformity of the intensity of illuminator---55
Determination of the uniformity of the intensity of ilumination.-58
 Procedures:---------58
4.1.2Measuring the temperature of the surface over a period of time.------59
Quality control test for maximum discharging time--
Summary of results                     ------64
Recommendation from the study-----64
Area of further studies -------65
Limitations of study-------65
Conclusion---------66
References---------67


INTRODUCTION
Radiographic viewing box is an illuminator use in viewing radiographs. Proper viewing conditions are very important when interpreting a radiograph. The viewing condition can enhance or degrade the subtle detail of the radiograph14. Before beginning the evaluation of radiograph, the viewing equipment and area should be considered. The area should be clean and free of distracting materials, magnifying aids, and film makers should be close at hand. Its function being to improves subject contrast of a radiographic image by enhancing the visualization of radiographs without which a radiographic image even with a good objectives contrast may not be well interpreted due to difference in perception of radiographic contrast by different observers9. X-ray illuminators have found increasing use in recent years as a tool for diagnosing medical problem.
         Since the discovery of  x-ray in 1895 by William roentgen in Germany, many x-ray equipment and accessories have evolved, all aiming at proper radiation protection and adequate diagnosis of illnesses. Among these inventions are the x-ray illuminators, which play an important role in film viewing, perception and interpretation of visible images.
   Unfortunately, conventional x-ray illuminators lack recharge ability which is a factor that has been limiting its use in the event of power failure.                                                          
The aim of this project is to construct a battery powered dual face radiographic viewing box with rotatable neck and adjustable stand that alleviates the cumbersomeness of carrying a table to a long distance for viewing of radiographs.
This illuminator will improve grade performance and produce clear images for more simplified accurate diagnosis, although the x-ray viewing box is locally constructed but it will be international standard with many features like momentary start switch standard, internal ventilation with a fan high luster white color coat finish, quality steel material and will accommodate all kinds of x-rays without occupying too much space.
The average luminance is a better indicator of the viewing box luminance than the central luminance. This is confirmed by the greater standard deviation in the mean central luminance than the standard for the mean average luminance12. Screen-film technology still has widespread use in developing countries. As such it is imperative to have quality control measures on viewing boxes. Despite the widespread use of screen-film technology in developing countries, there is a gradual shift to digital X-ray systems, which could be the ultimate solution to non-optimal viewing box luminance having a detrimental effect on radiograph reporting. The use of digital systems paves the way for other viewing options like the use of video monitors, printing the image on paper and the use of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), which have the advantage of eliminating the cost of film, chemicals and processor equipment. It should not escape one’s mind that digital imaging systems also have their relevant quality control requirements needed for optimal viewing of images.
            For the development of world class Medical X-Ray Illuminators (View Box), we possess a robust infrastructure, which is spread over a vast area. It includes a design studio and a manufacturing unit that work together to ensure slimmest designs and high performance of our illuminators. All the components used in the fabrication process are sourced from quality conscious vendors. Our infrastructure also includes a quality testing facility, wherein the finished products are tested for their quality.

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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). Local Construction Of Battery Powered Dual Face Radiographic Viewing Box With Rotatable Neck And Adjustable Stand. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/local-construction-of-battery-powered-dual-face-radiographic-viewing-box-with-rotatable-neck-and-adjustable-stand-9866

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "Local Construction Of Battery Powered Dual Face Radiographic Viewing Box With Rotatable Neck And Adjustable Stand" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/local-construction-of-battery-powered-dual-face-radiographic-viewing-box-with-rotatable-neck-and-adjustable-stand-9866. Accessed 08 Feb. 2023.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "Local Construction Of Battery Powered Dual Face Radiographic Viewing Box With Rotatable Neck And Adjustable Stand". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 08 Feb. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/local-construction-of-battery-powered-dual-face-radiographic-viewing-box-with-rotatable-neck-and-adjustable-stand-9866 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "Local Construction Of Battery Powered Dual Face Radiographic Viewing Box With Rotatable Neck And Adjustable Stand" Afribary (2018). Accessed February 08, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/local-construction-of-battery-powered-dual-face-radiographic-viewing-box-with-rotatable-neck-and-adjustable-stand-9866