Effect of Variations in Meteorological Parameters on the Tropospheric Radio Refractivity Over Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

The aim of this work is to examine the variations in meteorological parameters (Temperature, Atmospheric pressure, and Relative humidity)on the surface radio refractivity, N, in Lapai town, Niger state of Nigeria, with focus on the wet and dry seasons. Lapai town, being the study area, is located within latitude 9º 02ʺ N and longitude 6º 34ʺ E along Suleja road, about 56 km east of Minna, Niger state capital. Meteorological data obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) was used to obtain mean monthly refractivity for each month of the six years under review. It was observed that the refractivity values are lower in the dry season months (January, February, November and December) due to lower relative humidity, as compared to the wet season. On the other hand, the wet season months (March, April, May, June, July, August, September and October) characterized by higher refractivity values can be attributed mainly to high relative humidity values. The result also indicated that the month of January for the year 2018 has the minimum refractivity value of 325 N-units. The month of April, 2018 with N value of 444 N-units has the maximum value of refractivity, and the k-factor, from the radio refractivity gradient (RRG), was used to establish the fact that the study area has been found to be super refractive during both seasons, with values of 3/2 and 1.87 for dry and wet seasons respectively for the years in focus. The fact that these months are classified under the dry and wet seasons respectively makes it clear that the wet season has high refractivity and vice versa.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page         i

Declaration         ii

Turnitin certification             iii

Certification         iv

Dedication                              v

Acknowledgement        vi

Abstract                        vii

Table of Contents      viii

List of Tables                             ix

List of Figures                                      x

CHAPTER ONE 1

1.1 Background to the Study 1

1.2 Statement of Research Problem 3

1.3 Aim and Objectives 3

1.3.1 Aim 3

1.3.2 Objectives 4

1.4 Scope and limitation of the study 4

CHAPTER TWO 6

2.1 Introduction 6

2.2 Layers of the atmosphere 6

2.3 Theory of Surface Refractivity Gradient 7

2.4 Influence of Clear-Air Aspect of the Troposphere on VHF and UHF 

Propagation 9


CHAPTER THREE 14

3.1 Introduction 14

3.2 Source of Data 16

3.3 Data Analysis 16

CHAPTER FOUR 22

4.1 Introduction 22

4.2 Average Monthly Refractivity and Refractive Index 22

4.2.1 Dry and wet seasons refractivity (Ndry and Nwet) for 2015 23

4.2.2 Dry and wet seasons refractivity (Ndry  and Nwet) for 2016 24

4.2.3 Dry and wet seasons refractivity (Ndry andNwet) for 2017 26

4.2.4 Dry and wet seasons refractivity (Ndry andNwet) for 2018 28

4.2.5 Dry and wet seasons refractivity (Ndry andNwet) for 2019 29

4.2.6 Dry and wet seasons refractivity (Ndry and Nwet) for 2020 31

4.3 Comparative analysis of the radio refractivity values 32

4.4 Effect of variations in the parameters (Temperature, Relative humidity and Atmospheric pressure) on the refractivity values. 32

4.5 Computation of RRG and the effective earth radius, K 34

CHAPTER FIVE 36

5.1 Summary 36

5.2 Conclusion 36

5.3 Recommendation 37

References       39


LIST OF TABLES

Table Title   Page

3.1 Sample monthly data for the year 2015 19

3.2 Sample monthly data for the year 2016 19

3.3 Sample monthly data for 2017 20

3.4 Sample monthly data for 2018 20

3.5 Sample monthly data for 2019 21

3.6 Sample monthly data for 2020 21

4.1 Average Monthly data, refractive index and radio refractivity over 

Lapai town for 2015 22

4.2 Average monthly data, refractive index and refractivity over Lapai 

town for 2016. 24

4.3 Average monthly data, refractive index and refractivity over Lapai town 

for 2017 26

4.4 Average monthly data, refractive index and refractivity over Lapai town

for 2018 27

4.5 Average monthly data, refractive index and refractivity over Lapai town 

for 2019 29

4.6 Average monthly data, refractive index and refractivity over Lapai town

for 2020 30

4.7 Average values of temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure 

and radio refractivity from 2015-2020 32


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Title Page

2.1 Layers of the atmosphere source: (Okpani et al., 2015) 6

3.1 Map of Nigeria showing the location of Niger state and its borders 14

3.2 Map of Niger state showing the position of the study area (Lapai). 15

4.1 Average monthly refractivity for 2015 23

4.2 Average monthly refractivity for 2016 25

4.3 Average monthly refractivity for 2017 26

4.4 Average monthly refractivity for 2018 28

4.5 Average monthly refractivity for 2019 29

4.6 Average monthly refractivity for 2020 31

4.7 Effect of the meteorological parameters on the refractivity values 33

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APA

Wando, M. (2021). Effect of Variations in Meteorological Parameters on the Tropospheric Radio Refractivity Over Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/m-a-wando

MLA 8th

Wando, Muhammad "Effect of Variations in Meteorological Parameters on the Tropospheric Radio Refractivity Over Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria" Afribary. Afribary, 04 Nov. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/m-a-wando. Accessed 28 Nov. 2021.

MLA7

Wando, Muhammad . "Effect of Variations in Meteorological Parameters on the Tropospheric Radio Refractivity Over Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria". Afribary, Afribary, 04 Nov. 2021. Web. 28 Nov. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/m-a-wando >.

Chicago

Wando, Muhammad . "Effect of Variations in Meteorological Parameters on the Tropospheric Radio Refractivity Over Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria" Afribary (2021). Accessed November 28, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/m-a-wando