Masculinity and Experiences of Sexual Violence: Case Study of Male Congolese Refugees in Kampala Uganda

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION

APPROVAL

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS viii

ABSTRACT ix

CHAPTER ONE 1

INTRODUCTION 1

1.0 Introduction I

I . I Background to the Study .~

I . I . I Contextual Background 2

I . 1 .2 The Present Context: Refugee and asylum seeking procedures in Uganda 4

I .2 Statement of the problem 6

I .3 Purpose ofthe study 7

I .4 Specific Objectives 8

I .5 Research Questions 8

1.6 Scope of the study 8

1.6.1 Conceptual scope 8

1 .6.2 Geographical Scope 9

1.6.3 Time Scope 9

1 .7 Significance of the study 9

1 .8 Justification of the Study 9

1.9 Definition of key concepts 10

\1

CHAPTER TWO .13

LiTERATURE REVIEW 13

2.0 Introduction 13

2. 1 Social Construction Theory 13

2.2 Gender 14

2.3 Masculinity 15

2.4 Sexuality as socially constructed 16

2.5 Sexual violence 18

2.6 Power and Dominance: related to Ernasculation’ during sexual violence 18

2,7 Trauma 19

2.8 Conclusion 20

CHAPTER THREE 21

METHODOLOGY 21

3.0 Introduction 21

3.1 Research design 21

3.2 Population of the study and study area 21

3.3 Sample size and selection 22

3.4 Data collections methods 22

3.5 Data analysis 22

3.6 Research procedure 23

3.7 Ethical dimensions and study limitations 23

CHAPTER FOUR 25

PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS 25

4.1 Introduction 25

4,2 Experiences and effects on their manhood 25

vi

4.3 Coping strategies 31

4.4 Psychological and Physical effects 36

CHAPTER FIVE 39

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 39

5.0 Introduction 39

5.1 Discussion 39

5.1.1 Expectations and Perceptions of masculinity 39

5.1.2 Hegernonic Masculinity and DisclosureS 42

5.2 Conclusion 44

5.3 Recommendations 45

REFERENCES 46

APPENDICES 50

Appendix I: Research instruments 50

Interview Guide for Sexually-abused Men (all from DRC) 50

Interview Guide for Psychosocial Counsellors 51

Interview Guide for the Doctors Treating the Sexually Abused Men 52

ABSTRACT Yearly, Uganda receives many refugees, Sexual violence remains one of the reported incidences among those who seek asylum in Uganda, especially from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Though many organizations have tried to tackle the issue of gender-based violence where sexual violence is regarded as a major form, little is known about male refugees who are victims of sexual violence. This study explores how the masculine identities of the male Congolese refugees who have experienced sexual violence have shifted and considers their struggles to overcome trauma. Using a case study of Congolese male refugees, this study will indicate the importance of recognizing sexual violence and the damage it creates to their sense of self~ health and livelihood, and perhaps rethinking the problem of sexual violence from the point of view of men as victims. Through gathering the true stories from the men themselves, and from social workers (psycho-social counsellors), medical practitioners, care-takers and close relations, this study explores an area that has been under-researched in the past. This study found out that the psychological experiences sexually abused men go through are in some ways similar to those the women experiences, and even more than women sometimes, though men tend not to express themselves. The findings clearly illustrate the complex social construction of men’s sense of masculinity and how the dominant notions of masculinity has prevented these men from speaking out this issue to those around or working on their behalf. Their main coping strategies so far were found to be silence, isolation and denial of their experiences of sexual violence. This silence has hampered such men as victims from receiving the support they needed to overcome deep damage that sexual violence left them with, Also, men did not have a place in some organizations’ record-keeping on cases of sexual violence. Therefore the study suggests that those in charge of supporting refugee men could learn from approaches to masculinity which is seen as shaping men’s behaviour as victims and agents, hence influencing their responses to trauma and care.

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APA

SHALLON, T (2022). Masculinity and Experiences of Sexual Violence: Case Study of Male Congolese Refugees in Kampala Uganda. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/masculinity-and-experiences-of-sexual-violence-case-study-of-male-congolese-refugees-in-kampala-uganda

MLA 8th

SHALLON, TUSHEMEREIRWE "Masculinity and Experiences of Sexual Violence: Case Study of Male Congolese Refugees in Kampala Uganda" Afribary. Afribary, 02 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/masculinity-and-experiences-of-sexual-violence-case-study-of-male-congolese-refugees-in-kampala-uganda. Accessed 07 Aug. 2022.

MLA7

SHALLON, TUSHEMEREIRWE . "Masculinity and Experiences of Sexual Violence: Case Study of Male Congolese Refugees in Kampala Uganda". Afribary, Afribary, 02 Aug. 2022. Web. 07 Aug. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/masculinity-and-experiences-of-sexual-violence-case-study-of-male-congolese-refugees-in-kampala-uganda >.

Chicago

SHALLON, TUSHEMEREIRWE . "Masculinity and Experiences of Sexual Violence: Case Study of Male Congolese Refugees in Kampala Uganda" Afribary (2022). Accessed August 07, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/masculinity-and-experiences-of-sexual-violence-case-study-of-male-congolese-refugees-in-kampala-uganda