NATURE OF COMPLICATION DUE TO LONG WAITING TIME IN ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY: PERCEPTION OF RADIOGRAPHERS IN THE X-RAY DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF BENIN TEACHING HOSPITAL(UBTH)

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ABSTRACT
A study was conducted on the assessment of the nature of complication due to long waiting time in A/E:RADIOGRAPHERS PERCEPTION in the X-Ray Department , university of Benin Teaching Hospital .Questionnaire was distributed to medical staffs , observation was also used as a source of data collection on the possible causes of complication that is associated to long  waiting time to receive radiological services .Descriptive analysis was used to describe the respondents on the frequency of occurrence possible causes of complication  which are graded to assess the nature of the complication . According to radiographers,45% agreed 
Equipment breakdown causes complication 5%agreed that departmental protocol 
Contribute to complication. Conclusion ,the management has to make provision for all the possible causes of complication which will serve as parameter to reduce d complication .This work can be replicated in another hospital to enhance productivity for better management of A/E patient.

TABLES OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE----------ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT--------iii
APPROVAL PAGE---------iv
DEDICATION----------v
CERTIFICATION PAGE-------vi
CHAPTER ONE
Background of study--------1
Statement of study---------4
Objectives----------4
Significance of study--------4
CHAPTER TWO
Literature review---------6
CHAPTER THREE
Research design---------11
Population of study--------11
Source of data---------12
Method of data collection-------12
Method of data analysis--------13
CHAPTER FOUR
Data analysis and presentation-------14
Factors that have the highest frequency of occurrence---21
Factor that occur frequently interval of 4 months----22
Continuous occurrence factors of complication----23
Least occurrence factors of complication-----23
Discussion ----------25
Observation after a 4 months visit to UBTH-----27
Findings of result from observation------29
Continuous occurrence factors of complication----29
Summary of findings--------31
Conclusion----------32
Limitation----------33
Recommendation---------33
REFERENCES
APPENDIX 

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1: Distribution of Accident and Emergency Cases---14
Table 2: Respondents years of experience-----15
Table 3: Respondents’ rating of the  frequency of complication--16
Table 4: Types of Complications----16
Table 5: Radiographic investigations------18
Table 6: How often does seizure occur per week?----19

INTRODUCTION 

In an online search conducted, Wikipedia, org  defines complication in medicine as an unfavorable evolution of a disease, a health condition or a therapy the disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect organ system a new, may also appear as in complication to a previous existing disease.
According to Siler et al  complication rate is the measure of quality of care given to a patient.
Diercks et al stated that long waiting time of the accident and emergency patient in the radiography department is the duration of waiting to treat patient within the hour of arrival with referral and diagnosis in the department.
Long patient waiting time can be seen in every stage of the diagnosis and treatment. Its impact is felt mostly on critically ill patients such as accident and emergency victims. Long patient waiting time is associated with delays such that hospitalization becomes inevitable in patients who would have gone home after their treatement. This condition creates extra cost and inconveniences to the patient complication result from long patient waiting time could have mild or severe consequences. Sometimes death of the patient could result especially in accident and emergency patient it was identified from a study by Buchell et al, that an increasing number of people who use the A & E department service most time actually present non-urgent problems or minor ailments. These non emergency cases often cause overcrowding, resulting to a long waiting time and less immediate attention for emergencies.
A recently conducted Australian study by defiled  et al found out that the incensing proportion of registered nurses within a hospital significantly improve patients out come by decreasing adverse events such as sepsis, pneumonia and ulcers in accident and emergency department.
Guttmann  et al conducted a study on the associable between waiting time and short term mortality in Ontario Canada. They found out that long patient waiting time is associated with a greater risking the short term of death and admission to hospital in patents who are well enough to leave the department.
From the researcher clinical experience at the study area, different complications occur while patients wait to be attended to, these incidents most times cause panics and anxiety to the health workers in the emergency department and the Radiographers are involved. Sometimes the authorities in the hospital demand explanation from the health workers over the incident. Penalties or sack could follow such proceedings. It therefore becomes important for all health workers in the A &E department especially to understand their expected responsibility when such condition arises.
Despite the danger and losses associated with the long patient waiting time, there is no record or documentation of these events. It is therefore the concern of this research to document these complication events and determine their frequency rate as well as find out the common/prevalent complications ailments seen in the study area to provide solution to the situation.
In an unpublished research study, Aleke. Assessed the accident and emergency radiography practices in public hospital in Enugu urban. He found out that there is prolonged patent waiting time which leads to further complications to the patient case and even death, however the frequency of such complications was not ascertained. He further suggested a study on the assessment of the complication rate from long patient waiting time in A & E patients.
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). NATURE OF COMPLICATION DUE TO LONG WAITING TIME IN ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY: PERCEPTION OF RADIOGRAPHERS IN THE X-RAY DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF BENIN TEACHING HOSPITAL(UBTH). Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/nature-of-complication-due-to-long-waiting-time-in-accident-and-emergency-perception-of-radiographers-in-the-x-ray-department-university-of-benin-teaching-hospital-ubth-1426

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "NATURE OF COMPLICATION DUE TO LONG WAITING TIME IN ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY: PERCEPTION OF RADIOGRAPHERS IN THE X-RAY DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF BENIN TEACHING HOSPITAL(UBTH)" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/nature-of-complication-due-to-long-waiting-time-in-accident-and-emergency-perception-of-radiographers-in-the-x-ray-department-university-of-benin-teaching-hospital-ubth-1426. Accessed 30 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "NATURE OF COMPLICATION DUE TO LONG WAITING TIME IN ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY: PERCEPTION OF RADIOGRAPHERS IN THE X-RAY DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF BENIN TEACHING HOSPITAL(UBTH)". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 30 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/nature-of-complication-due-to-long-waiting-time-in-accident-and-emergency-perception-of-radiographers-in-the-x-ray-department-university-of-benin-teaching-hospital-ubth-1426 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "NATURE OF COMPLICATION DUE TO LONG WAITING TIME IN ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY: PERCEPTION OF RADIOGRAPHERS IN THE X-RAY DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITY OF BENIN TEACHING HOSPITAL(UBTH)" Afribary (2018). Accessed November 30, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/nature-of-complication-due-to-long-waiting-time-in-accident-and-emergency-perception-of-radiographers-in-the-x-ray-department-university-of-benin-teaching-hospital-ubth-1426