NIGERIAN HIP HOP AS CULTURAL DIPLOMACY IN GHANA

Blessing Oso 101 PAGES (31903 WORDS) Thesis
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Abstract 

The last three decades has seen the development of hip hop as a cultural and artistic phenomenon affecting youth culture around the globe, and in the process evolving as an enduring youth and social movement crossing spatial and socio-cultural barriers. The Nigerian variant of Hip hop complete with music and content has continued to be influential with wide acceptance in Africa and the world at large. The depth of the influence of Nigerian hip hop outside the shores of this country is made more real in the West African country of Ghana that shares common colonial and linguistic legacy with Nigeria. Therefore, this study investigated the ramification of Nigerian cultural diplomacy in Ghana through the agency of Nigerian hip hop music. The study employed an exploratory and sociological research design with primary data gathered through in-depth interviews with three Ghanaian club Disc Jockeys (Djs) and questionnaire administered to one hundred and fifty (150) undergraduate students in three higher learning institutions in Accra, Ghana. The data gathered were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively within the context of the research questions using the thematic narrative and simple percentage methods respectively. This study premised on Joseph Nye’s Soft Power theory which explains cultural diplomacy as a soft power and diplomatic tool in extending a nation’s cultural influence beyond its borders and more specifically in another country. This study reveal that majority of the respondents in selected Universities in Ghana do listen to Nigerian Hip hop. Also, it was revealed that an average high percentage of Nigerian Hip hop is played on radio stations compared to Ghanaian hip hop in Ghana. In addition, Nigerian Hip hop is played more frequently at social events than Ghanaian music in Ghana. Also, 70.7% of the respondents confirmed that the use of Nigerian pidgin has influenced the acceptability of Nigerian Hip hop by Ghanaians. Responses from the interview revealed that majority of the respondents confirmed that the reception of Nigerian Hip hop by Ghanaians has improved inter-cultural relationships with Nigerians living in Ghana and the Diaspora. Through cultural exchanges such as art, music, dance, sports and so on, nation states can embrace their differences and appreciate their common interests.


TABLE OF CONTENT Title page……………………………………………………………………………………….i Certification…………………………………………………………………………………...ii Dedication……………………………………………………………………………….……iii Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………….…..iv 

Table of contents…………………………………………………………................................v 

List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………….viii Abstract………………………………………………………………………………….........ix 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 

1.1  Background to the study…………………………………………………..........................1

 1.2  Statement of the problem…………………………………………………………….….15 

1.3  Research Questions…………………………………………………...............................15 

1.4  Aim and Objectives……………………………………………………………………...15

 1.5  Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………..16

 1.6  Scope of the Study……………………………………………………………………….16 


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………17 2.1 Cultural Diplomacy: The New Public Diplomacy…………………………………….…17 2.2 The values of Cultural Diplomacy in Transnational Contexts………………………...…19 2.3 Music as tool for Cultural Diplomacy (Musical Diplomacy)…………………….…....…23 2.4 Development of Hip-Hop and its Evolution………………………………………..……30 2.5 Hip-Hop in Africa and its Re-creation………………………………………………..….32 

vi  2.6 Nigerian Hip-Hop Music (NHHM)…………………………………………………..….34 2.7 Nigerian Hip-Hop as Cultural Product……………………………..……………………35 2.8 Theoretical Framework………………………………………………………………….39 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………42 3.2 Study Design……………………………………………………………………………..42 3.3 Study Area………………………………………………………………………………..42 3.4 Study Population…………………………………………………………………………42 3.5 Sample Technique and Sampling Procedure……………………………………………..43 3.6 Sample Size………………………………………………………………………………43 3.7 Method of Data Collection………………………………………………………….…....43 3.8 Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………………………….…...43 


CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………….…...44 4.2 Quantitative Findings……………………………………………………………….…....47 4.2.1 Discussion of Findings………………………………………………………….….…..49 4.3 Qualitative Data Analysis…………………………………………………………….…..55 4.3.1 Nigerian Hip Hop as a Cultural Diplomatic tool in Ghana…………………………….55 4.3.2 The Influence of Nigerian Hip Hop on Ghana Hip Hop……………………………….57 

vii  4.3.3 Musical and Cultural elements that has affected the acceptability of Nigerian Hip Hop by Ghanaians…………………………………………………………………………………60 4.3.4 The spread of Nigerian Hip Hop music across the national and cultural boundaries between Ghana and Nigeria………………………………………………………………….63 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Summary………………………………………………………………………………....70 5.2 Recommendations………………………………………………………………………..71 5.3 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………..72 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………...73 APPENDIX I, II, & III……………………………………………………………………...82 


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APA

Blessing, O (2019). NIGERIAN HIP HOP AS CULTURAL DIPLOMACY IN GHANA. Afribary.com: Retrieved October 17, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/nigerian-hip-hop-as-cultural-diplomacy-in-ghana

MLA 8th

Oso, Blessing. "NIGERIAN HIP HOP AS CULTURAL DIPLOMACY IN GHANA" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 23 Sep. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/nigerian-hip-hop-as-cultural-diplomacy-in-ghana . Accessed 17 Oct. 2019.

MLA7

Oso, Blessing. "NIGERIAN HIP HOP AS CULTURAL DIPLOMACY IN GHANA". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 23 Sep. 2019. Web. 17 Oct. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/nigerian-hip-hop-as-cultural-diplomacy-in-ghana >.

Chicago

Oso, Blessing. "NIGERIAN HIP HOP AS CULTURAL DIPLOMACY IN GHANA" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed October 17, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/nigerian-hip-hop-as-cultural-diplomacy-in-ghana