The motivation to undertake this study on “the survival of Igbomina indigenous political structure under Ilorin emirate system in the 20th century” is born out of increasing question on the identity and tenacity of the culture of Igbomina people and more especially their political system.
For over a century, the Igbomina people were under different powerful political authorities. While places like Oke – Ode and Babanloma were under the Nupe authority, places like Oro, Igbaja, Omu- Aran, among others, were under Ilorin. The influence and impact of these authorities over the Igbomina speaking people are indeed, lasting. While the dressing of some of the traditional title holder has been seriously influenced, religion and custom has not been battered.
The totality of this situation has naturally been generating questions that this research study tend to provide answers to.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Certification : ii
Table of Contents: v
1.1 Statement of the problem 1
1.2 Objectives of the study 2
1.3 Scope of the study 3
1.4 Methodology and problem 4
1.5 Literature review 5
THE ORIGIN OF IGBOMINA PEOPLE
2.1. The migration history of Igbomina people 10
2.2. The indigenous political structure of Igbomina land 25
2.3 Igbomina and its Neighbour 35
2.4. Ilorin before the emirate system 37
Notes and References 42
THE ERA OF HEGEMONY
3.1 Nupe incursion into igbomina land 46
3.2 Overlordship of Ilorin on Igbomina people before of emirate system 50
3.3 The integration of Igbomina into Ilorin emirate system 55
3.4 Colonialism and subjugation of Igbomina in north region 65
Notes and References 71
THE SURVIVAL OF IGBOMINA INDIGENOUS POLITICAL SYSTEM, UNDER ILORIN EMIRATE
4.1 Agitation for regrouping by the Igbomina during colonialism
4.2 Political Freedom of the Igbominas
4.3 The Tenacity of Igbomina Indigenous Political Institution
4.4 The survival and present position of Igbomina indigenous political rulers in Kwara State
Notes and references 97
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this work is to critically examine how Igbomina indigenous political system survived till date despite that the polity undergone series of incursions at different times in history.
Equally important is the era of Ilorin emirate hegemony over the Igbomina people. The influence of Ilorin emirate has also been given serious treatment in this essay. It should be noted however, that within the establishment of imperial presence through the planting of fiefs and appointment of agents called “AJELE” to oversee various Igbomina community by Ilorin emirate, the impact of it was felt in the whole of Igbominaland. In particular, the Igbomina groups that are in Kwara state. The role of British colonialists in sustaining the authority of Ilorin emirate over Igbomina is also worthy of appraisal.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is to discuss the integration of Ilorin culture into Igbominaland. Especially the stock in Kwara state. The specific focus would be on how the Igbomina indigenous culture have survived under different subjugating authorities.
The study covers from between 1900 -1999. This would be largely because the Ilorin emirate imperialism on Igbomina reached it apogee and decline in the 20th century. This study will also touch on various aspects of history on the incursion in Igbomina land. The relationship between Igbomina people and Ilorin before the emergency of emirate system in the mid 19th century. The situation would be treated along the administrative structure of Igbomina indigenous political institutions and the structural changes recorded after the era of established authorities over the Igbomina peoples.
It should be noted that, much has been done on the historical reconstruction of Igbominaland in general, but attempt have not been made on the survival of Igbomina indigenous political structure under Ilorin emirate in the 20th century. Therefore, relevant materials have to be scouted for. Some of the literatures examined are as follow.
Samuel Johnson, in his book, The History of Yoruba, gives a general historical account of Yorubas. The book traces the origin of the Yorubas and how Alaafin Ojigi took interest on Igbomina people to have extended Oyo empire authority to the area. The extension of Oyo Empire’s authority, where Laderin, the progenitor of Aare Afonja served as the first Ajele of Old Oyo Empire in Ilorin.
Akintoye, in his book, Revolution and Power politics in Yorubaland, 1840 -1993, did a thorough job on the origin of Igbomina as a group that settled in Kwara state. He also goes on to discuss at length the impact of Ibadan warriors on Igbomina.
Suffice to say, while Akintoye claimed that Oke – Ode and Ora were founded by the Oyo immigrants, available sources have shown that the settlements were by Ife immigrants.
Fatai Afolabi’s Igbomina Land in the Context of Yoruba History, is a literature that gives details account on migrational history of Igbomina origin, people and also how Igbomina people are found in Kwara and Osun states of present day political structure in Nigeria. The literature also analysis how the Igbomina people agitated for regrouping during the colonial era.
Even though the literature dealt more on Igbomina history, never the less the vacuum of the survival of Igbomina indigenous political structure was not filled.
Sources of Yoruba History by S.O. Biobaku, analysis different Yoruba indigenous political entity as well as structures without ruling out the social cultural settings of the Yoruba kingdoms and chiefdoms. It also contributed in no small measures to the explanation of the relationship between different Yoruba kingdoms, especially during the Yoruba civil war.
It is worthy of note that, the literature dealt mostly on Yoruba civil war of 16years. The literature did not extend to discuss the history of Igbomina people.
R.S. Smith in his book, Kingdoms of the Yoruba, a good account of Igbomina and other Yoruba kingdoms although in a comparative form. It did not cover the aspect on the survival of the Igbomina people.
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