Oil Waste Management and Marine Pollution a Case Study of Kilindini Harbour, Mombasa, Kenya.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION

APPROVAL ii

DEDICATIONS iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS v

LIST OF TABLES viii

LIST OF FIGURES ix

LIST OF PLATES x

ACRONYMS xi

ABSTRACT Xii

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background

1.2 Importance of marine environment 2

1.3 Research problem 3

1.4 Significance of the study 3

1.5 General objective 3

1.6 Research questions 4

1.7 Limitations of the study 4

1.8 Operational terms 4

v

CHAPTER TWO .6

LITRATURE REVIEW 6

2.1 Introduction 6

2.2 Overview of marine ecosystem 7

2.3 Impacts of oil pollution on marine environment 9

2.4 Effects of Oil on Coastal Habitats 9

2.5 Effects of marine activities on Kilindini Harbour marine environment 11

2.6 Laws and policies on marine conservation and management in Kenya 15

CHAPTER THREE 17

MATERIALS AND METHODS 17

3.1 Introduction 17

3.2StudyArea 17

3.3 Research design 17

3.4 Target population 18

3.5 Sample and sampling technique 18

3.6 Data collection instruments 19

3.7 Data analysis 20

CHAPTER FOUR 21

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 21

4.1 Introduction 21

4.2 Background information 21

4.3 Activities taking place at Kilindini Harbour 22

4.4 Need for Port Waste Reception Facility as per IMO Regulation 24

vi

4.5 Oil Waste Removal Statistics 27

4.6 Challenges encountered waste oil management 29

CHAPTER FIVE 32

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 32

5.1 INTRODUCTION 32

5.2 Conclusion 35

5.3 Recommendations 36

5.4 Areas of Further Study 37

REFERENCE 38

APPENDICES 40

ABSTRACT The study established the Problems of Marine Oil waste Management Processes at Kilindini Harbour at Mombasa Kenya guided by three objectives namely, to identify the procedures involved in the management of oil waste to final disposal, to identify the challenges in the managing of marine oil waste and to make recommendations on how oil waste management can be improved The study was conducted under the view that most of the problems of marine oil waste management at Kilindini Harbour arose from rapid unplanned urbanisation, institutional shortcomings of KPA had led to deteriorated state in marine oil waste management and that the problems of marine oil waste management emanated from operational huddles in implementation of policies. The study was both descriptive and analytical in nature where it based on primary and secondary data to establish the magnitude of the study. Primary data based on quantitative and qualitative data designs. Qualitative data designs included; interviews and observation. Quantitative data were gathered through questionnaires. A total of 80 respondents were involved in this study. A purposive sampling was employed to select the respondents around Kilindini Harbour. Technical planning problems were found to be a deep root in the problem having emanated from long ago as the port operations grew. Financial inadequacies were also found to be a major problem to institutional efforts of KPA in the management of marine oil waste. The oil waste collectors were found to have a very poor culture in regards to oil waste disposal. The study recommended better planning for the port development, sensitisation of all relevant stakeholders to influence good culture on marine oil waste disposal. In addition easing control and regulation of structural development around the harbor needed to be in harmony with policy on marine oil waste management. The study also recommends inclusion of private sector involvement into the management of marine oil waste. On labour problems the city authorities were advised to get better or modern technology and retrain its staff in order to reduce on expense of having to hire many employees.

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APA

MBITHI, M (2022). Oil Waste Management and Marine Pollution a Case Study of Kilindini Harbour, Mombasa, Kenya.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/oil-waste-management-and-marine-pollution-a-case-study-of-kilindini-harbour-mombasa-kenya

MLA 8th

MBITHI, MWALIKO "Oil Waste Management and Marine Pollution a Case Study of Kilindini Harbour, Mombasa, Kenya." Afribary. Afribary, 17 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/oil-waste-management-and-marine-pollution-a-case-study-of-kilindini-harbour-mombasa-kenya. Accessed 04 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

MBITHI, MWALIKO . "Oil Waste Management and Marine Pollution a Case Study of Kilindini Harbour, Mombasa, Kenya.". Afribary, Afribary, 17 Aug. 2022. Web. 04 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/oil-waste-management-and-marine-pollution-a-case-study-of-kilindini-harbour-mombasa-kenya >.

Chicago

MBITHI, MWALIKO . "Oil Waste Management and Marine Pollution a Case Study of Kilindini Harbour, Mombasa, Kenya." Afribary (2022). Accessed December 04, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/oil-waste-management-and-marine-pollution-a-case-study-of-kilindini-harbour-mombasa-kenya