Optimum Cocoyam Densities, Time of Introduction and Poultry Manure Rates for Plantain - Cocoyam Mixture in Southeastern Nigeria

The MasterMind Project Boniface Ngozi Ukanwa 151 PAGES (26489 WORDS) Thesis
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ABSTRACT

This research was carried out to determine the optimum cocoyam density, time of cocoyam introduction and poultry manure rates for sustainable plantain/cocoyam mixture. The experiment was a 3x3x2 factorial arrangement fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 18 treatment combinations replicated 3 times to give 54 experimental plots. The experiment was conducted in two phases; the first phase involved plantain and cocoyam planted the same time in the month of May 1999 and the second phase involved the introduction of cocoyam two months later i.e. July 1999. Plantain suckers were planted at 1667 plants/ha as base crop and cocoyam introduced at densities of 6666, 10000 and 20000p/ha at the two times of intercropping. Poultry manure was incorporated at the rate of 20t/ha, 40t/ha and 60t/ha. Growth and yield parameters were measured. A corm yield of 19.97t/ha and 15.86t/ha for cormel were achieved. Also a higher plantain yield of 18.69t/ha was achieved from plantain intercropped in the month of July than 13.07t/ha for the month of May. Plantain yields were better than sole crop yield. In this research a predictability equation for a leaf-area for and cocoyam was given by: Y = -715.71 + 64.46x, where X = leaf length and Y = leaf area. The research showed that plantain intercropped with 20000 cocoyam and manured with 40t/ha produced the maximum output and the highest benefit cost ratio of 2.8.

 

  1. 1.0  INTRODUCTION 1

  2. 1.1  Food situation in Nigeria 1

  3. 1.2  Population pressure and land scarcity 4

  4. 1.3  Proposed Technologies to check farming 7

  5. 1.4  Problems of sole plantain production 9

  6. 1.5  Why mixture is a potential for future food security 10

  7. 1.6  Objectives 13

  1. 2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW 14

  2. 2.1  Farming systems 15

  1. 2.1.1  Shifting cultivation 18

  2. 2.1.2  Fallow system 20

  3. 2.1.3  Semi permanent farming systems 20

2.2 Densities and crop combination 22

  1. 2.2.1  Plant density 22

  2. 2.2.2  Crop combination 24

2.2.3 Crop mixtures: merits and demerits 25 2.3 Manurial practice 27

  1. 2.3.1  Organic manure and soil fertility 27

  2. 2.3.2  Inorganic manure and soil fertility 31

2.4 Diseases and pests incidence 32

  1. 3.0  MATERIALS AND METHODS 36

  2. 3.1  Experimental site 36

  3. 3.2  The soil physical and chemical properties 36

  4. 3.3  Treatments 37

  5. 3.4  Experimental layout/design 37

  6. 3.5  Land preparation 38

  7. 3.6  Planting of plantain and cocoyam 38

  8. 3.7  Manure application 39

3.8. Measurement of growth parameters 39

  1. 3.8.1  Plant height (m) 39

  2. 3.8.2  Canopy cover (%) 40

  3. 3.8.3  Cocoyam leaf area (cm2) 41

  4. 3.8.4  Leaf area of plantain (m2) 42

  5. 3.8.5  Pseudo stem circumference (cm) 42

3.9 Yield Parameters 42

  1. 3.9.1  Corm/cormel yield (t/ha) 42

  2. 3.9.2  Fruit yield (t/ha) 43

  3. 3.9.3  Harvest pattern 43

  1. 3.10  Pest and disease control 44

  2. 3.11  Weed control 45

  3. 3.12  Sucker development 45

  4. 3.13  Economic assessment of plantain/cocoyam mixture 45

  1. 4.0  RESULTS 48

  2. 4.1  Soil status 48

  3. 4.2  Effects of poultry manure on soil characteristics 50

  4. 4.3  Climatic conditions 52

  5. 4.4  Influence of time of introduction and cocoyam densities for growth and yield of cocoyam 54

  1. 4.4.1  Cocoyam leaf area (cm2) 54

  2. 4.4.2  Cocoyam height (cm) 54

  3. 4.4.3  Leaf area index 55

  4. 4.4.4  Corm yield (t/ha) 56

  5. 4.4.5  Cormel yield (t/ha) 56

  6. 4.4.6  Total yield (t/ha) 56

4.5 Effects of poultry manure and time of introduction on growth and yield of cocoyam 57

  1. 4.5.1  Leaf area of cocoyam (cm2) 57

  2. 4.5.2  Cocoyam height (cm) 57

  3. 4.5.3  Leaf area index of cocoyam 58

  4. 4.5.4  Corm yield (t/ha) 59

  5. 4.5.5  Cormel yield (t/ha) 59

4.5.6 Total yield (t/ha) 59 4.6 Effects cocoyam densities and time of introduction on growth and yield of plantain 60

  1. 4.6.1  Total leaf area of plantain (m2) 60

  2. 4.6.2  Plantain height (cm) 60

  3. 4.6.3  The leaf area index of plantain 61

  4. 4.6.4  Pseudo-stem girth (cm) 62

  5. 4.6.5  Bunch yield (t/ha) 62

  6. 4.6.6  Number of hands/bunch 62

  7. 4.6.7  Number of fingers/bunch 63

4.7 Effects of poultry manure and time of introduction on growth and yield of plantain 63

  1. 4.7.1  Total leaf area of plantain (m2) 63

  2. 4.7.2  Plantain height (cm) 65

  3. 4.7.3  Leaf area index of plantain 65

  4. 4.7.4  Pseudo stem girth 65

  5. 4.7.5  Bunch yield (t/ha) 66

  6. 4.7.6  Number of hands per bunch 66

  7. 4.7.7  Number of fingers 66

4.8 Effects of time of introduction, plant densities manurial on the associated crops 67

  1. 4.8.1  Leaf area of cocoyam (cm2) 67

  2. 4.8.2  Cocoyam height (cm) 67

  1. 4.8.3  Leaf area index 68

  2. 4.8.4  Corm yield (t/ha) 70

  3. 4.8.5  Cormel yield (t/ha) 70

  4. 4.8.6  Total yield (t/ha) 70

4.9 Densities and associated manurial effects as influenced by time of cocoyam introduction for plantain production 71

  1. 4.9.1  Total leaf of plantain (m2) 71

  2. 4.9.2  Plantain height (cm) 71

  3. 4.9.3  Leaf area index of plantain 72

  4. 4.9.4  Pseudo stem circumference (cm) 73

  5. 4.9.5  Bunch yield (t/ha) 73

  6. 4.9.6  Number of hands 74

  7. 4.9.7  Number of finger 74

  1. 4.10  Time for 50% flowering in plantain 76

  2. 4.11  Income assessment techniques 76

    1. 4.11.1  Cost estimate of plantain/cocoyam mixture 76

    2. 4.11.2  Income return for mixture cocoyam in relation to sole 78

    3. 4.11.3  Income return from mixture plantain 80

4.12 Production cost and investment returns for plantain and cocoyam mixture 82 4.12.1 Total gross benefit 82

  1. 4.12.2  Total variable cost 82

  2. 4.12.3  Net benefit and benefit cost ratio 83

  1. 5.0  DISCUSSION 85

  2. 5.1  Nutrients status 85

  3. 5.2  Climatology 86

  4. 5.3  Percentage wind damage 87

  5. 5.4  Growth and yield of cocoyam 87

  6. 5.5  Growth and yield of plantain 90

  7. 5.6  Interaction effects 91

  8. 5.7  Economic Assessment 92

6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 94

References 97

Appendices 108 

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APA

The MasterMind, P (2021). Optimum Cocoyam Densities, Time of Introduction and Poultry Manure Rates for Plantain - Cocoyam Mixture in Southeastern Nigeria. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 03, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/optimum-cocoyam-densities-time-of-introduction-and-poultry-manure-rates-for-plantain-cocoyam-mixture-in-southeastern-nigeria

MLA 8th

Project, The MasterMind. "Optimum Cocoyam Densities, Time of Introduction and Poultry Manure Rates for Plantain - Cocoyam Mixture in Southeastern Nigeria" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/optimum-cocoyam-densities-time-of-introduction-and-poultry-manure-rates-for-plantain-cocoyam-mixture-in-southeastern-nigeria . Accessed 03 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

Project, The MasterMind. "Optimum Cocoyam Densities, Time of Introduction and Poultry Manure Rates for Plantain - Cocoyam Mixture in Southeastern Nigeria". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021. Web. 03 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/optimum-cocoyam-densities-time-of-introduction-and-poultry-manure-rates-for-plantain-cocoyam-mixture-in-southeastern-nigeria >.

Chicago

Project, The MasterMind. "Optimum Cocoyam Densities, Time of Introduction and Poultry Manure Rates for Plantain - Cocoyam Mixture in Southeastern Nigeria" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed March 03, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/optimum-cocoyam-densities-time-of-introduction-and-poultry-manure-rates-for-plantain-cocoyam-mixture-in-southeastern-nigeria