Paper Crete Brick An Alternative To Paper Waste management

Johnpaul Onyebuchi 57 PAGES (9989 WORDS) Thesis
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Abstract 


The research was conducted on investigation into papercrete brick, as an alternative to paper  waste management in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. The demand of paper consumption represents a permanent issue in day to day activities which if a holistic approach is not taken to manage it waste effect, there won't be any sustainability achievement. A laboratory approach was employed ranging from soaking, mixing, casting and curing, finally physical and mechanical properties were determined. The result shows that papercrete was excellent in compressive strength (1.91N/mm2 ) and abrasion resistance (0.92cm2 /g) but weakin water absorption (18.41).

Table of contents 

Title Page ……………………………………………………………………………...I

Declaration ……………………………………………………………………………II

 Certification .………………………………………………………………………...III

Dedication …………………………………………………………………………...IV 

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………….V 

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………...VI

Table of Contents …………………………………………………………………...VII

List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………..XI

List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………XII

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction …………..…………………………………………………………….1

1.1 Background of study…...............................................................................................1

1.2 Statement of problem……...……..………………….................................................6

1.3 Aims and Objective……………………………………………………………...….6

1.3.1 Aims……………………………………………………………………………….6

1.3.2 Objectives………………………………………………………………...……….6

1.4 Significance of the study………………………………………………………..…..7

1.5 Scope and Limitation………………………………………………………………..7

1.6 Research method…………………………………………………………………….7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review……………………………………………………………………8

2.1 Recycling in construction industry………………………………………………....8

 2.2 The need for recycling in construction……………………………………………...9

2.2.1 The unsustainable rate of global waste generation…………………..……………9

2.2.2 The construction industry ……………………………………………………….11

2.2.2.1 Environmental impact of the construction industry……………………………11

2.2.2.2 Implication of environment impact of the construction industry……………...14

2.3 Sustainability in the construction industry… ……………………………………..14

2.4 Use of recycled solid wastes in building material…………………………………14

2.5 Use of recycled waste paper in construction………………………………………15

2.5.1 Availability of waste paper………………………………………………………15

2.5.2 Potential impact of inadequate disposal of waste paper………………………....17

2.5.3 Previous use of waste paper in building materials……………………………….18

2.6 Properties of waste paper cement based bricks preview of papercrete 

bricks…………………………………………………………………………………..19

2.7 Summary of literature review……………………………………………………..20

CHAPTER THREE.

3.0 Material and method……………………………………………………………….21

3.1 Materials Used……………………………………………………………………..21

3.1.1 Paper………..……………………………………………………………………21

3.1.2 Cement……………...……………………………………………………………21

3.1.3 Sand………………………..…………………………………………………….22

3.1.4 Water………………………………………………………………………….....22

3.2 Field test…………………………………………………………………………...22

3.2.1 Touch/smell/cigar/ribbon………………………………………………………..22

3.2.2 Cigar/ribbon……………………………………………………………………..22

3.3 Preparation of paper crete………………………………………………………….23

3.3.1 Pulp generation…………………………………………………………………..23

3.3.2 Equipment/tools used…………………………………………………………….24

3.3.3 Mixing…………………………………………………………………………....24

3.3.4 Casting of paper crete brick……………………………………………………...25

3.3.4 Curing…………………………………………………………………………....25

3.4 Testing……………………………………………………………………………..25

3.4.1 Compressive strength test………………………………………………………..26

3.4.1.1 Preparing test samples…………………………………………………………26

3.4.1.2 Test procedures………………………………………………………………..26

3.4.2 Abrasive strength test……………………………………………………………26

3.4.3 Water absorption capillary test…………………………………………………..27

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Results and Discussion of Results…………………………………………………29

4.1 Compressive test…………………………………………………………………..38

4.2 Abrasion strength test…………………………………………………………..…42

4.3 Water absorption test………………………………………………………………46

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Summary of research……………………………………......................................47

5.1 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………….47

5.2 Recommendations………………………………………………………………...47

5.3 Recommendation for further study……………………………………………….48

5.4 Contribution to knowledge………………………………………………………..48

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….49

TABLES

Table 2.1 Practical example of impact reduction and Enviromental benefit obtainable 

from waste recycling (Source: Standford university’s recycling and solid waste 

report,2011)………………………………………………………..…..……………....11

Table 2.2 Summary of recycled use of solid waste in building materials……………..15

Table 4.1 Smelling/washing/touching test…………………………………………..…29

Table 4.2 Cigar/ribbon test…………………………….………………………………30

Table 4.3 Compressive strength test (0% paper) 14 days………………………....…...31

Table 4.4 Compressive strength test paper crete brick 14 days………………………..32

Table 4.5 Compressive strength test (0% paper) 21 days……………………………...33

Table 4.5 Compressive strength test paper crete brick 21 days………………………..34

Table 4.6 Compressive strength test (0% paper) 28 days……………………………...35

Table 4.7 Compressive strength test paper crete brick 28 days…………….……….…36

Table 4.8 Abrasive strength test (0% paper) ….……………………………………....39

Table 4.9 Abrasive strength test paper crete brick…….………………………..……..40

Table 4.10 Water absorption test (0% paper) …………………………..……………..43

Table 4.11 Water absorption test paper crete brick…………………………………....44

FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Waste hierarchy (source: Hoornweg & Bhada-Tata, 2012))……………….8

Figure 2.2 Evidence of unstainable rate of global solid waste generation and evidence 

of expected unsustainable growth to global waste generatin by 2025 (source: modified

using information obtained from world bank report ( Hornweg & Bhada 

Tata,2012)………………………………………………….………………………...10 

Figure 2.3 Estimate of global resources consumption in building construction (Hawken

etal, 1999) ………………………………………………….………………………….13

Figure 2.4 Estimate of global pollution attributed to building (Brown &Bardi, 2001)..13

Figure 2.5 “waste paper “the largest component of packaging waste generated in 

Europe 

(2005-2013) (Source: Eurostat stastics Explained, 2016 )…………………………...17

Figure 4.1 Graph of compressive strength with curing period for CEB (0% paper) 

……………………………………...………………………………………………….37

Figure 4.2 Graph of compressive Strength with curing period for papercre brick ……37

Figure 4.3 Graph of abrasion coefficient with mass of lost matter for CEB (0% paper) 

…………..……………………………………………………………….…………….41

Figure 4.4 Graph of abrasion coefficient with mass of lost matter for papercrete ……41

Figure 4.5 Graph of water absorption coefficient with mass of dry brick in kg for CEB 

(0% paper) of for papercrete brick…………………….……………………………...45

Figure 4.6 Graph of water absorption coefficient with mass of dry brick in kg for 

papercrete brick…………..…........................................................................................45

APPENDIX

Plate 1 Shredded paper pulp…………………………………………………………...52

Plate 2 Mixed papercrete ……………………………………………………………...52

Plate 3 Casting of papercrete brick…………………………………………………….52

Plate 4 Cinva Ram machine……………………………………………………………52

Plate 5 Moulded papercrete brick……………………………………………………...53

Plate 6 Curing of papercrete brick……………………………………………………..53

Plate 7 Compressive strength machine…………………………………………….…..54

Plate 8 Water capillary absorption of papercrete………………………………………54

Plate 9 Papercrete brick after compressive strength test………………………………55

Plate 10 Abrasive resistance test……………………………………………………….55

Plate 11 Weighing of water absorbed papercrete brick…………………….………….56

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APA

Johnpaul, O (2019). Paper Crete Brick An Alternative To Paper Waste management. Afribary.com: Retrieved December 06, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/paper-crete-brick-an-alternative-to-paper-waste-management

MLA 8th

Onyebuchi, Johnpaul. "Paper Crete Brick An Alternative To Paper Waste management" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 30 Jul. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/paper-crete-brick-an-alternative-to-paper-waste-management . Accessed 06 Dec. 2019.

MLA7

Onyebuchi, Johnpaul. "Paper Crete Brick An Alternative To Paper Waste management". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 30 Jul. 2019. Web. 06 Dec. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/paper-crete-brick-an-alternative-to-paper-waste-management >.

Chicago

Onyebuchi, Johnpaul. "Paper Crete Brick An Alternative To Paper Waste management" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed December 06, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/paper-crete-brick-an-alternative-to-paper-waste-management