Phenotypic Characterization of West African Short Horn (WASH) Cattle and their Crosses in Tolon District

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This study aimed at characterizing the WASH cattle and their crosses reared semi-intensively in the Tolon District of Northern Ghana.  The age, colour and twelve (12) different biometric traits were measured on 125 cattle and subjected to Chi- square and principal component factor analysis.  WASH cattle were characterized by five different colour patterns; black, white, brown, fawn and black and white. The paired coloured pattern (black and white) was the most observed among the cattle.  Generally, WASH cattle were smaller in size with averages of heart girth, body length, neck length, tail length, ear length, neck girth, horn length, horn diameter at the base, horn diameter at the tip, head length, rump height, and height at withers being 121.3±1.68, 74.71±0.92, 38.30±0.44, 83.82±1.15, 20.79±0.30, 65.80±0.69, 22.18±0.75, 15.95±0.30, 35.88±1.04, 42.99±0.43±109.9±0.54 and 107.7±0.57cm respectively.  


TABLEOFCONTENTS

DECLARATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF PLATES

ACRONYMS

CHAPTER ONE

1.INTRODUCTION

1.1 General objective

1.2 Objective

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Origin of the WASH cattle

2.2 Importance of cattle production

2.3 Cattle industry in Ghana

2.4 Cattle breeds in Ghana

2.5 Characteristics of the WASH cattle

2.6 Overview of growth in cattle

2.7 Constraints of cattle production

2.8 Causes of variations in body traits

2.9 Linear body measurementon cattle

2.2.1 Correlation among body traits

2.2.2 Factor and principal component analysis

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and methods

3.1 Study area and climate

3.2 Management practices of experimental animals

3.3 Data collection

3.4 Linear body measurements

3.5 Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Results and discussion

4.1 Qualitative traits of the WASH cattle

4.2 Quantitative traits of the WASH cattle

4.3 Phenotypic correlation of biometric traits

4.4 Body composition of the WASH cattle

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendations

REFERENCES


LIST OF TABLES

Title Page

Table 1: Distribution of the qualitative traits of the WASH cattle

Table 2: Analysis of variance for morphological traits in cattle

Table 3: Least square means (±S.E) of linear body traits (cm) of the cattle

Table 4: Pearson correlation coefficient among morphometric traits

Table 5: Variance explain by the

Table 6: component matrix of LBMs and communalities


LIST OF PLATE

Plate 1: measurement of linear body traits

ACRONYMS

BL - Body length

HW - Height at withers

CG - Chest girth

HRL - Horn length

DHT- Horn diameter at the tips

DBH - Horn diameter at the base

El - Ear length

NL - neck length


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APA

Paul Fuseini, H. (2022). Phenotypic Characterization of West African Short Horn (WASH) Cattle and their Crosses in Tolon District. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/phenotypic-characterization-of-west-african-short-horn-wash-cattle-and-their-crosses-in-tolon-district

MLA 8th

Paul Fuseini, Hamza "Phenotypic Characterization of West African Short Horn (WASH) Cattle and their Crosses in Tolon District" Afribary. Afribary, 05 Dec. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/phenotypic-characterization-of-west-african-short-horn-wash-cattle-and-their-crosses-in-tolon-district. Accessed 31 Jan. 2023.

MLA7

Paul Fuseini, Hamza . "Phenotypic Characterization of West African Short Horn (WASH) Cattle and their Crosses in Tolon District". Afribary, Afribary, 05 Dec. 2022. Web. 31 Jan. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/phenotypic-characterization-of-west-african-short-horn-wash-cattle-and-their-crosses-in-tolon-district >.

Chicago

Paul Fuseini, Hamza . "Phenotypic Characterization of West African Short Horn (WASH) Cattle and their Crosses in Tolon District" Afribary (2022). Accessed January 31, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/phenotypic-characterization-of-west-african-short-horn-wash-cattle-and-their-crosses-in-tolon-district