This study was carried out to determine the level of contamination of commercial poultry feed, feed ingredients and faecal samples with multi-drug resistant Klebsiella species in Imo State, Nigeria. Samples were collected from broiler starter, broiler finisher, growers and layers feed types of three feed brands labelled TFB, VFB and GFB. Faecal samples from broilers, layers and local chicken were collected from randomly selected farms, open market and local chicken in each zone using sterile swab stick to sample the chicken cloaca. These samples were collected for Orlu, Okigwe and Owerri zones of the state. In each zone, 6 collection centres were randomly selected. In each centre, 0.5kg of feed from thoroughly mixed randomly collected feed type was aseptically sampled, labelled appropriately and transported to the laboratory for analysis. This was repeated for each feed type of each brand. Samples were also collected from feed ingredients which included sorghum, maize, palm kernel cake, blood meal, groundnut cake, soya bean meal and fish meal. Samples were cultured on MacConkey and eosin methylene blue agar and identified through colonial morphology and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using disc diffusion method against a panel of ten antimicrobials with breakpoints as recommended by clinical laboratories standards institute. Data were analysed with means and percentages. Ninety one (75.8%) feed samples were positive for Klebsiella species after isolation procedures. Out of these, 25, 30 and 28 samples representing 62.5, 82.5 and 82.5% occurrence were recorded for TFB, VFB and GFB feed brands respectively. Twenty eight (46.67%), 46 (57.6%) and 43 (43%) of the energy and fibre source feed
ingredients, protein source feed ingredient and poultry droppings respectively were positive for Klebsiella species. The isolates from commercial feeds were most resistant to septrin (59.1%), nalidixic acid (53.4%) and augumentin (52.3%) and least resistant to gentamycin (37.5%), orfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (40.9%). All the isolates from feed ingredients were resistant to perfloxacin and nalidixic acid. The isolates were also highly resistant to orfloxacin and cephalexin 93.45% and 89.19% respectively and were least resistant to ciprofloxacin (33.78%) and streptomycin (66.22%).The isolates from poultry droppings showed highest resistance to septrin (87.1%), ampicillin(83.87%) and nalidixic acid(77.42%) but were least resistant to augumentin (29%), orfloxacin (19.35%) and cephalexin (16.13%). All the isolates from local chicken were resistant to perfloxacin, nalidixic acid and ampicillin but were equally sensitive to streptomycin, cephalexin and ciprofloxacin.The commercial feed brands in the study area and the feed ingredients were found to be highly contaminated with multi-drug resistant Klebsiella species and could be sources of difficult to treat Klebsiella infection for chicken, other animals and subsequently humans in the area.
Keywords: antimicrobial, resistance, klebsiella, poultry feeds, feed ingredients,.
The MasterMind, P (2021). Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant Klebsiella Species in Poultry Feeds, Feed Ingredients and Fecal Samples in Imo State, Nigeria. Afribary.com: Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-klebsiella-species-in-poultry-feeds-feed-ingredients-and-fecal-samples-in-imo-state-nigeria
Project, The MasterMind. "Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant Klebsiella Species in Poultry Feeds, Feed Ingredients and Fecal Samples in Imo State, Nigeria" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-klebsiella-species-in-poultry-feeds-feed-ingredients-and-fecal-samples-in-imo-state-nigeria . Accessed 25 Feb. 2021.
Project, The MasterMind. "Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant Klebsiella Species in Poultry Feeds, Feed Ingredients and Fecal Samples in Imo State, Nigeria". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021. Web. 25 Feb. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-klebsiella-species-in-poultry-feeds-feed-ingredients-and-fecal-samples-in-imo-state-nigeria >.
Project, The MasterMind. "Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant Klebsiella Species in Poultry Feeds, Feed Ingredients and Fecal Samples in Imo State, Nigeria" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed February 25, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-klebsiella-species-in-poultry-feeds-feed-ingredients-and-fecal-samples-in-imo-state-nigeria