Demulsification (emulsion breaking) is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experimentally. In this regard, Amine Demulsifier, Polyhydric Alcohol, Acid and Polymeric demulsifiers were used. Using samples of w/o, the data presented for several commercial-type demulsifiers show a strong connection (correlation) between good performance (fast coalescence) and the demulsifiers. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via beaker tests. The amine group demulsifiers promoted best coalescence of droplets. In contrast, polymeric demulsifier group is the least in water separation.
Many oil production processes present a significant challenge to oil and water treating equipment design and operations. The nature of crude oil emulsions changes continuously as the producing field depletes and condition change with time. These changes create the need to consider future performance. When designing treatment systems and those changes require an understanding of scale and upscaling.
This research work will explore all the theories and technologies involved in crude oil and water treatment, starting with emulsion theory formation, stabilization and the mechanism, though the technology to destabilize and separate from oil after the oil has been dehydrated. The research work will thus discuss desalting technologies and processes required to achieve the required oil specifications.
The breaking of emulsions (demulsification) is necessary in many applications such as environmental technology, painting, petroleum industry and waste-water treatments. Methods currently available for demulsification can be broadly classified as chemical, electrical and mechanical. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The formulation of an emulsion demulsifier for a specific petroleum emulsion is a complicated undertaking. In petroleum system, asphaltenes and resinous substances comprise a major portion of the interfacially active components of the oil.
Asphaltenes and resinous are large polyaromatic and polycyclic condensed ring compounds containing heteroatoms. Chemically, asphaltenes and resins are represent the pentane or hexane insoluble portion of the oil Anderson and Bird. (Understanding and controlling demulsification is of primary importance for breaking waste emulsions and for using emulsions in industrial processes that require emulsion destabilization as a main step. In the oil industry water comes into contact with crude oil on many occasions, creating emulsions stabilized by various components in the oil, including the asphaltenes and resins. At drilling site, the recovered oil will contain some water and hydrophilic impurities which need to be removed before shipping and processing. The water concentration may vary, but a target specification for water and sediments removal may be 1% or less.
There are many procedures for the neutralization and reduction of the emulsifying agent has been used. for example, Hennessey used the gravity separation, while electrostatic coalescence has used by Bailes. Also centrifugal and filtration methods mentioned by Lissant as techniques used for breaking the emulsion.
This research conducted to study the influence of chemical demulsifiers on the destabilization of emulsions. Experimental results showed a strong connection (correlation) between good performance (fast coalescence) and the demulsifiers.
Considerable quantities of reservoir water are obtained as a by-product of the oil and gas production processes. In order to protect the environment and also the formation, this water has to be processed. If it is not treated, it cannot be returned directly into the sea, none can it be used for water-re-injection purposes in order to boost the pressure in the reservoir. The aim is to treat the formation in such as way that no hazardous traces of oil and undissolved solids are able to enter the environment or the formation of water. This process with processing systems which operate reliably and cost effectively on drilling vessles and platforms or on land. Protects the reservoir and the environment in the oil production process, water has to be continuously injected into the bore holes as the reservoir enploitation process proceeds and as the associated pressures fall water. Water that is not properly treated may dog up the pores of the reservoir and thus destroy the reservoir. A centrifuge offer the optimum solution for ensuring efficient de-oiling of the water in conjunction with simultaneous separation of the extremely fine particles. This ensures constantly high yields and a long and safe operation of the oil field. Because the centrifuges have a patented self-cleaning sludge removal system, they operate on a continuous basis. This means that production does not have to be interrupted. At the same time, the sludge disposal cost are reduced to a minimum.
SIGNIFICANCE AND USE
The water and sediment content of crude oil is significant because it can cause corrosion of equipment and problems in processing.
This research work will concentrate on produced water coming along side with crude when drilling a reservoir, how it can be treated, separated in the petroleum refinery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In this study, four chemical demulsifiers; Amine groups, Polyhydric Alcohol, Acid and Polymeric demulsifiers were used for water-in-crude oil emulsions demulsification. A 900 mL graduated cylindrical glass was used as sample container.
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