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Background of the study
What is soap?
Soaps are divided into two main types: Toilet and Industrial.These are few definition of soap. One of definition, soap is an alkali metal salt of a long-chain fatty acid and is manufactured using vegetable and animal fats. Besides, soap is a chemical compound or mixture of chemical compounds forming from the interaction of fatty acids and alkaline solution. The alkaline solutions often called lye usually used in making soap are sodium hydroxide(NaOH) also known as caustic soda and potassium hydroxide (KOH). Usuallysoap, sodium hydroxide is used to make liquid soap; NaoH and KOH are water soluble soap which is different from those made from divalent metals such as calcium and magnesium, which are water insoluble.A soap molecule of a long hydrogen chain which are compose of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxylic acid group on one end which is ionic bond to a metal ion, usually a sodium or potassium soap manufacture occurs by sponifcation which is shown by the following reaction. Sodium hydroxide + Triglycend=soap Glyceol.Detergents are produced synthetically with the active ingredient being a surface active agent or surfactant. Surfactant molecules are composed of groups of opposing solubility tendencies for examples hydrophobic (oil-soluble) hydrogen chain and a hydrophobic (water soluble) ionic or non-ionic group. It can be anionic, cationic, or non-ionic. Examples of anionic used for production of soapare linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS), fatty alcohol sulphate (FAS) and branched alkyl sulpahate (BAS). LAS were derived from propylene, which was in turn derived from crude oil.Historically, LAS and BAS were the main surfactants for many formulations.But only leaving for much formulation because BAS has been banned for use due to its low biodegradation quality. In Malaysia, there is an abundance of fatty methyl ester primarily from the alchemical companies as well as from the manufacture of vitamin E and carotenes from palm oil.

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Valentine, M. & PEPERTUA, C (2022). PRODUCTION OF SOAP USING CHAMOMILE OIL. Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

Valentine, Mcdavis, and CHIDERA PEPERTUA "PRODUCTION OF SOAP USING CHAMOMILE OIL" Afribary. Afribary, 03 Jun. 2022, Accessed 10 Aug. 2022.


Valentine, Mcdavis, and CHIDERA PEPERTUA . "PRODUCTION OF SOAP USING CHAMOMILE OIL". Afribary, Afribary, 03 Jun. 2022. Web. 10 Aug. 2022. < >.


Valentine, Mcdavis and PEPERTUA, CHIDERA . "PRODUCTION OF SOAP USING CHAMOMILE OIL" Afribary (2022). Accessed August 10, 2022.