RADIOGRAPHY STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCE OF STRESSORS IN THE COURSE OF THEIR CLINICAL POSTING

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ABSTRACT

A prospective cross sectional survey conducted on the undergraduate clinical students of Radiography Department, UNEC to find out what constitutes stressors for the undergraduate clinical students of Radiography Department, UNEC in the course of their clinical posting. The study sample consisted of one hundred and fifty six Radiography clinical students in third, fourth or fifth year of study. Primary source of data using a semi structured questionnaire was utilized. The questionnaire employed likert 5-point attitudinal measurement scale. Level 300, 400 and 500 experience stressors in the course of their clinical posting with weighted mean of 3.2, 3.0 and 2.7 respectively. Sources of stressors experienced by the students were found to be related to facilities (equipment and diagnostic rooms), hospital departmental management, Radiographers attitude and transportation with the weighted mean of 3.27, 2.94, 2.76 and 2.76 respectively. The results revealed that the female students experience stressors more than the male students with weighted mean of 3.3 and 2.8 respectively.  Although stressors are experienced by people in all walks of life in the course of their daily activity and may as such be termed ‘inevitable’, it is extremely important to bring it to the barest minimum as far as this group of students is concerned. This is to ensure that the aim for which clinical posting was initiated is not defeated as well as to turn in Radiographers that are found worthy in learning and character.
Key Words: Stressors, Clinical posting, Radiography students.

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Fig. i   Human brain                                                                     15 
Fig. ii  Human spinal cord                                                                         18
Fig. iii  Adrenal gland                                                                                19
Fig. iv  Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis                                 20
Table 4.1 Age and Sex distribution of respondents according to their
               level of study                                                                               29
Fig. v:  Venn diagram showing where respondents have 
Experienced clinical posting                                                          30
Table 4.2 Distribution of the responses of 300 levels student to
                sources of stressors in the course of their clinical posting          31
Table 4.3  Distribution of the responses of 400 levels student to 
                sources of stressors in the course of their clinical posting          32
Table 4.4 Distribution of the responses of 500 levels student to 
                sources of  stressors in the course of their clinical posting         33
Table 4.5 Percentage distribution of the responses of the entire students
               to sources of  stressors in the course of their clinical posting     34
Table 4.6 Weighted mean of responses to the statement:‘I experience stressors in the course of my clinical posting’according to level and sex                                                                         35
Fig. vi      Bar chart presentation of Responses to facilities
               (diagnostic room/equipment)  as sources of stressors
                according   to level and sex                                              36
Fig.vii       Line graph presentation of Responses to hospital 
               management as sources of stressor according to level
               and sex                                                                              37
Fig.viii      Line graph presentation Responses to radiographers’ attitude 
               as sources stressors according to level and sex                     38
Table 4.7  Responses to transportation as sources of stress
                according to level and sex                                                    39
Fig. ix      Bar chart presentation of summary of responses                 40
TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                           i
Approval Page                                                                                   ii
Certification                                                                                       iii
Dedication                                                                                          iv
Acknowledgement                                                                v
Abstract                                                                                              vi
List of Tables                                                                                     vii
Table of Content                                                                                ix
CHAPTER ONE:   INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background                          1
1.1 Statement of problem                                                          2
1.2 Purpose of study                                                                  3    
1.3 Specific objectives                                                    3                                          
1.4 Significance of study                                                           3                                                     
1.5 Research question                                                                4                                           
1.6 Hypothesis                                                                           4
1.7 Scope of study                                                                      5   
CHAPTER TWO:   LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Review of related literature                                                      6
2.1 Theoretical background                                                       12
2.1.0 Definition of term 12          
2.1.1 Types of stressors 13
2.1.2 Types of stress13
2.1.3 Symptoms of stress15
2.1.4 Biophysiology of stress15
CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Research design                                                                      23
3.1 Area of study                                                                     23
3.2 Population for the study 23
3.3 Sample size                                                                         24
3.4 Sampling technique                                                             24
3.5 Sources of data                                                                   25
3.6 Instrumentation                                                                   25
3.7 Reliability and validity of the instrument               26
3.8 Methods of data presentation and analysis                                26
CHAPTER FOUR:  DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 
4.0 Decision rule for likert scale analysis                                   27
4.1 Data presentation                                                                 29
4.2 Analysis and presentation of responses to the open ended questions                                 41 
4.3 Test of hypothesis                                                                       42
CHAPTER FIVE             DISCUSSION, SUMMARY OF FINDINDS, RECOMMENDATION, CONCLUSION, LIMITATION OF STUDY AND AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.
5.0 Discussion                                                                           52
5.1 Summary of the findings                   54
5.2 Recommendation                                                                       54 
5.3 Conclusion                                                                                 55    
5.4 Limitations of study                                                                   55 
5.5 Areas for further study                                                               55
REFERENCE                                                                                       56
APPENDIX                                                                                          60
                                                      
INTRODUCTION
 
The radiography program as offered by the Radiography Department University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus is made up of two components, a didactic component where students spend time in the classroom setting learning about the fields of Diagnostic Imaging and Clinical component where students gain their hands on experience by working in various clinical sites based on student needs and availability of clinical space and requirements of the program.
Clinical experience as one of the requirements for the award of BSc in the Radiography Department, UNEC is aimed at providing opportunity for the Radiography students to become acquainted with the hospital since they are the future Radiographers. It is designed for the application of theoretical principles and concepts covered in didactic course work. It entails experience in patient care and handling, positioning skills, equipment utilization, patient information management, work efficiency and image evaluation.
Despite the fact  that clinical posting is aimed  at producing Medical Radiographers that would be found worthy in learning and in character and eligible for immediate employment or advanced education, observation has shown that a good number of students do not utilize the opportunity and may only do so if there are measures put in place to check such action. The question is what are the things around the clinical component that make majority of the students not to be committed to this important aspect of the program?
Stressor is defined as any demand made by internal or external environment that upsets the person’s balance for which restoration is needed. A lot of studies have been carried out in different parts of the world to detect what constitutes clinical stressor to clinical students even though very few are narrowed down to radiography clinical students as would be seen in the literature review.
Many literatures on stress present stress as having negative influence on learning as well as on the individual’s well being. It is therefore pertinent to demonstrate what constitutes clinical stressor on the fore mentioned students as this will enable the Department to seek ways to ensure that the aim for clinical posting is not defeated.
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). RADIOGRAPHY STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCE OF STRESSORS IN THE COURSE OF THEIR CLINICAL POSTING. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/radiography-students-rsquo-experience-of-stressors-in-the-course-of-their-clinical-posting-6206

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "RADIOGRAPHY STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCE OF STRESSORS IN THE COURSE OF THEIR CLINICAL POSTING" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/radiography-students-rsquo-experience-of-stressors-in-the-course-of-their-clinical-posting-6206. Accessed 04 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "RADIOGRAPHY STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCE OF STRESSORS IN THE COURSE OF THEIR CLINICAL POSTING". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 04 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/radiography-students-rsquo-experience-of-stressors-in-the-course-of-their-clinical-posting-6206 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "RADIOGRAPHY STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCE OF STRESSORS IN THE COURSE OF THEIR CLINICAL POSTING" Afribary (2018). Accessed December 04, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/radiography-students-rsquo-experience-of-stressors-in-the-course-of-their-clinical-posting-6206