Of the factors which influence and determine the contents and messages of drama, the society from which that drama emanates is of great significance. The ineffectiveness and inadequacies that constitute the social and political setting of the present day Africa and which hinder human and societal growth engendered the writing of plays which advocate and call for immediate change of African social political system and positive transformation of the continent's social, economic and political settings. One of the radical African dramatists whose drama are geared towards goading and motivating the audience to take necessary revolutionary actions for systemic reformation of social and political system is Bode Sowande and some of the plays he wrote to this effect are Circus of Freedom Square and Farewell to Babylon.
This research therefore analyses the revolutionary contents in Bode Sowande's Circus of Freedom square and Farewell to Babylon. The outcome of the analysis of the revolutionary ethos in the selected plays will be used not only in identifying the roles of African dramatists in African revolutionary struggles but also in acknowledging their stance on social and political reformation of the continent.
Through the textual analysis of the selected plays, revolutionary ethos such as what brings about revolutionary struggles and the possible outcome of these struggles are identified. In Circus of Freedom Square, for instance, revolutionary examination of societal conventions like the misuse of power among the political public holders, injustice in the court system, undue politicization of the press, unrighteousness of religious institutions and the presence of dictatorial government are undertaken. Thus the people’s quest for societal salvation is supreme. Farewell to Babylon, on its own part, comprises revolutionary ethos like people’s desire for positive transformation of the society, the preparedness of the common man to resist unwanted socio-political system and the presence of the military in African politics. Both plays establish Sowande as a dramatist that is against the use of violence for societal transformation.
The work is of importance to the practice and study of theatre as it informs potential dramatists on how to use drama for relevant human and societal growth and development.
Keywords : African drama, revolution and ethos.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contentv
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background to the Study
Statement of Problem3
Objective of the Study4
Scope of the Study 4
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.1The concept of revolution5
2.2Connection between Drama and revolution8
2.2.3The theatre of the oppressed12
2.2.4The living theatre13
2.3African drama and the revolutionary ethos15
2.3.1The indigenous African traditional drama16
2.3.2The colonial drama16
2.3.3The colonial and post-colonial drama in Africa18
2.4The state of African polity21
2.4.1 Africa, a fertile ground for revolutionary campaign21
2.4.3Political system and leadership traits25
2.5African dramatists and their response to African economic, social and political climate29
CHAPTRE THREE: Analysis of Texts
3.1 Biography of Bode Sowande31
3.2Textual analysis of Circus of Freedom Square34
3.2.1Summary of the play34
3.2.2Themes of the play37
3.2.3Revolutionary contents in the play40
3.3Textual analysis of Farewell to Babylon56
3.3.2Summary of the play56
3.3.3Farewell to Babylon, a metaphor of the African socio-political context58
3.4Revolutionary contents of the play61
3.5The outcome of the revolutionary struggle72
3.6Self-discipline as a catalyst of change73
CHAPTER FOUR: Summary and Conclusion
Saheed, S. (2018). REVOLUTIONARY ETHOS IN BODE SOWANDE'S FARWELL TO BABYLON AND CIRCUS OF FREEDOM SQUARE.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-ethos-in-bode-sowande-s-farwell-to-babylon-and-circus-of-freedom-square
Saheed, Saheed "REVOLUTIONARY ETHOS IN BODE SOWANDE'S FARWELL TO BABYLON AND CIRCUS OF FREEDOM SQUARE." Afribary. Afribary, 20 Oct. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-ethos-in-bode-sowande-s-farwell-to-babylon-and-circus-of-freedom-square. Accessed 11 Dec. 2023.
Saheed, Saheed . "REVOLUTIONARY ETHOS IN BODE SOWANDE'S FARWELL TO BABYLON AND CIRCUS OF FREEDOM SQUARE.". Afribary, Afribary, 20 Oct. 2018. Web. 11 Dec. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-ethos-in-bode-sowande-s-farwell-to-babylon-and-circus-of-freedom-square >.
Saheed, Saheed . "REVOLUTIONARY ETHOS IN BODE SOWANDE'S FARWELL TO BABYLON AND CIRCUS OF FREEDOM SQUARE." Afribary (2018). Accessed December 11, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-ethos-in-bode-sowande-s-farwell-to-babylon-and-circus-of-freedom-square