Of the factors which influence and determine the contents and messages of drama, the society from which that drama emanates is of great significance. The ineffectiveness and inadequacies that constitute the social and political setting of the present day Africa and which hinder human and societal growth engendered the writing of plays which advocate and call for immediate change of African social political system and positive transformation of the continent's social, economic and political settings. One of the radical African dramatists whose drama are geared towards goading and motivating the audience to take necessary revolutionary actions for systemic reformation of social and political system is Bode Sowande and some of the plays he wrote to this effect are Circus of Freedom Square and Farewell to Babylon.
This research therefore analyses the revolutionary contents in Bode Sowande's Circus of Freedom square and Farewell to Babylon. The outcome of the analysis of the revolutionary ethos in the selected plays will be used not only in identifying the roles of African dramatists in African revolutionary struggles but also in acknowledging their stance on social and political reformation of the continent.
Through the textual analysis of the selected plays, revolutionary ethos such as what brings about revolutionary struggles and the possible outcome of these struggles are identified. In Circus of Freedom Square, for instance, revolutionary examination of societal conventions like the misuse of power among the political public holders, injustice in the court system, undue politicization of the press, unrighteousness of religious institutions and the presence of dictatorial government are undertaken. Thus the people’s quest for societal salvation is supreme. Farewell to Babylon, on its own part, comprises revolutionary ethos like people’s desire for positive transformation of the society, the preparedness of the common man to resist unwanted socio-political system and the presence of the military in African politics. Both plays establish Sowande as a dramatist that is against the use of violence for societal transformation.
The work is of importance to the practice and study of theatre as it informs potential dramatists on how to use drama for relevant human and societal growth and development.
Keywords : African drama, revolution and ethos.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Content v
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background to the Study
Statement of Problem 3
Objective of the Study 4
Scope of the Study 4
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.1 The concept of revolution 5
2.2 Connection between Drama and revolution 8
2.2.1 Agit prop 10
2.2.2 Epic Theatre 11
2.2.3 The theatre of the oppressed 12
2.2.4 The living theatre 13
2.3 African drama and the revolutionary ethos 15
2.3.1 The indigenous African traditional drama 16
2.3.2 The colonial drama 16
2.3.3 The colonial and post-colonial drama in Africa 18
2.4 The state of African polity 21
2.4.1 Africa, a fertile ground for revolutionary campaign 21
2.4.2 Economic progress 23
2.4.3 Political system and leadership traits 25
2.5 African dramatists and their response to African economic, social and political climate 29
CHAPTRE THREE: Analysis of Texts
3.1 Biography of Bode Sowande 31
3.2 Textual analysis of Circus of Freedom Square 34
3.2.1 Summary of the play 34
3.2.2 Themes of the play 37
3.2.3 Revolutionary contents in the play 40
3.3 Textual analysis of Farewell to Babylon 56
3.3.2 Summary of the play 56
3.3.3 Farewell to Babylon, a metaphor of the African socio-political context 58
3.4 Revolutionary contents of the play 61
3.5 The outcome of the revolutionary struggle 72
3.6 Self-discipline as a catalyst of change 73
CHAPTER FOUR: Summary and Conclusion
4.1 Summary 75
4.2 Conclusion 78
Saheed, B (2018). REVOLUTIONARY ETHOS IN BODE SOWANDE'S FARWELL TO BABYLON AND CIRCUS OF FREEDOM SQUARE.. Afribary.com: Retrieved April 22, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-ethos-in-bode-sowande-s-farwell-to-babylon-and-circus-of-freedom-square
Babatunde, Saheed. "REVOLUTIONARY ETHOS IN BODE SOWANDE'S FARWELL TO BABYLON AND CIRCUS OF FREEDOM SQUARE." Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 20 Oct. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-ethos-in-bode-sowande-s-farwell-to-babylon-and-circus-of-freedom-square . Accessed 22 Apr. 2021.
Babatunde, Saheed. "REVOLUTIONARY ETHOS IN BODE SOWANDE'S FARWELL TO BABYLON AND CIRCUS OF FREEDOM SQUARE.". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 20 Oct. 2018. Web. 22 Apr. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-ethos-in-bode-sowande-s-farwell-to-babylon-and-circus-of-freedom-square >.
Babatunde, Saheed. "REVOLUTIONARY ETHOS IN BODE SOWANDE'S FARWELL TO BABYLON AND CIRCUS OF FREEDOM SQUARE." Afribary.com (2018). Accessed April 22, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-ethos-in-bode-sowande-s-farwell-to-babylon-and-circus-of-freedom-square