Grounded in Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) Ecological Systems Theory and through the application of cross-classified random effects models, the goal of this study was to examine simultaneously neighborhood and school influences on adolescent academic achievement and risk of obesity, as well as the moderating effects of schools on these outcomes. By examining concurrently neighborhood and school influences on achievement and risk of obesity, this study aimed to fill gaps in the social determinants literature. For example, it is unclear if where an adolescent lives or where she/he attends school has a stronger influence on academic achievement. We also do not know if schools can moderate neighborhood influences on adolescent achievement, nor do we know much about the relationships among schools, neighborhoods, and adolescent risk for obesity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study, four research questions were investigated:
(1) To what extent are neighborhood influences on U.S. middle and high school students’ academic achievement moderated by school environments?
(2) What are the relative influences of neighborhood and school environments on U.S. middle and high school students’ academic achievement?
(3) To what extent are neighborhood influences on U.S. middle and high school students’ risk of obesity moderated by school environments?
(4) What are the relative influences of neighborhood and school environments on U.S. middle and high school students’ risk of obesity?
Findings did not suggest a moderating relationship between neighborhood and school factors examined in this study. In terms of relative relationships with academic achievement, three neighborhood factors (affluence, racial composition, and urbanicity) and two school characteristics (student body racial composition and school socioeconomic status) appeared to have the strongest relationships with adolescent achievement after controlling for individual and other neighborhood and school characteristics. For adolescent risk of obesity, neighborhood affluence and racial composition had statistically significant unique associations, whereas no school factors evidenced statistically significantly relationships with risk of obesity after controlling for other factors. Results of the study were interpreted in terms of contributions to the social determinants literature, as well as recommendations for the improvement of future large-scale surveys.
Table of Contents
List of Tables.. vi
List of Figures. viii
Chapter One: Introduction1
Statement of the Problem1
Rationale for the Study3
Purpose of the Study6
Overview of the Study Design7
Significance of the Study9
Definition of Terms15
Organization of Remaining Chapters19
Chapter Two: Literature Review20
Neighborhood Influences on Adolescent Academic Achievement23
Neighborhood male joblessness27
Neighborhood social disorganization27
Perceived neighborhood quality28
Other neighborhood measures29
Neighborhood Influences on Adolescent Risk of Obesity30
Other neighborhood measures32
School Influences on Adolescent Academic Achievement34
School sociodemographic characteristics35
School resources and sector36
Perceived social climate and school quality39
School Influences on Adolescent Risk of Obesity42
Chapter Three: Method50
Purpose of the Study50
Overview of the Add Health Study52
In-School sampling frame53
School Administrator Questionnaire56
Overview of AHAA Study60
Univariate and bivariate analyses79
Chapter Four: Results104
Research Question 1119
Research Question 2120
Research Question 3125
Research Question 4126
Summary of Findings131
Chapter Five: Discussion133
Summary of Findings134
Neighborhoods, schools, and academic achievement134
Neighborhoods, schools, and risk of obesity136
Limitations of the Study138
Implications for the Field144
Directions for Future Research145
Appendix A: Summary Tables of Previous Neighborhood and School Research165
(2018). Schools as moderators of neighborhood influences on adolescent academic achievement and risk of obesity: A cross-classified multilevel investigation. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/schools-as-moderators-of-neighborhood-influences-on-adolescent-academic-achievement-and-risk-of-obesity-a-cross-classified-multilevel-investigation-2029
"Schools as moderators of neighborhood influences on adolescent academic achievement and risk of obesity: A cross-classified multilevel investigation" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/schools-as-moderators-of-neighborhood-influences-on-adolescent-academic-achievement-and-risk-of-obesity-a-cross-classified-multilevel-investigation-2029. Accessed 26 Mar. 2023.
. "Schools as moderators of neighborhood influences on adolescent academic achievement and risk of obesity: A cross-classified multilevel investigation". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 26 Mar. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/schools-as-moderators-of-neighborhood-influences-on-adolescent-academic-achievement-and-risk-of-obesity-a-cross-classified-multilevel-investigation-2029 >.
. "Schools as moderators of neighborhood influences on adolescent academic achievement and risk of obesity: A cross-classified multilevel investigation" Afribary (2018). Accessed March 26, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/schools-as-moderators-of-neighborhood-influences-on-adolescent-academic-achievement-and-risk-of-obesity-a-cross-classified-multilevel-investigation-2029