Cardiac catheterization (heart cath) is Radiological Procedure by insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vessel of the heart followed by injection of contrast media . This is done both for diagnostic and interventional purposes. Subsets of this technique are mainly coronary catheterization, involving the catheterization of the coronary arteries, and catheterization of cardiac chambers and valves of the cardiac system, The history of cardiac catheterization dates back to Stephen Hales (1677-1761) and Claude Bernard (1813-1878), who both used it on animal models. Clinical application of cardiac catheterization begins with Werner Forssmann in 1929, who inserted a catheter into the vein of his own forearm, guided it fluoroscopically into his right atrium, and took an X-raypicture of it.  During World War II, André Frédéric Cournand, a physician at NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia, then Columbia-Bellevue, opened the first catheterization lab. In 1956, Forssmann and Dr. Cournand were co recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the development of cardiac catheterization. ( The cardiac catheterization handbook. Kern, Morton J.,, Sorajja, Paul,,).
ALI, M (2021). Study of Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetes Mellitus patients using Cardiac Catheterization. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/study-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus-patients-using-cardiac-catheterization
ALI, MUSAAB "Study of Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetes Mellitus patients using Cardiac Catheterization" Afribary. Afribary, 20 May. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/study-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus-patients-using-cardiac-catheterization. Accessed 10 Dec. 2023.
ALI, MUSAAB . "Study of Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetes Mellitus patients using Cardiac Catheterization". Afribary, Afribary, 20 May. 2021. Web. 10 Dec. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/study-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus-patients-using-cardiac-catheterization >.
ALI, MUSAAB . "Study of Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetes Mellitus patients using Cardiac Catheterization" Afribary (2021). Accessed December 10, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/study-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus-patients-using-cardiac-catheterization