Sustainable Options For Wetland-Based Livelihoods: The Case Of Pangani River Basin, Tanzania

EXTENDED ABSTRACT

This study demonstrates how theories of development and international conventions related to wetlands management are translated into national policies and the consequences of their implementation. The study adopted UK‟s Department for International Development (DFID) livelihood framework in designing sustainable options for wetland based livelihoods in the Pangani river basin, Tanzania. Comparative and case study research designs adopted in the study considered three livelihood niches (irrigated agriculture, agro-pastoralism and fisheries) and examined 360 households, out of which 120 respondents through stratified random sampling from each livelihood niche were interviewed. The study revealed four major issues that either promote or block sustainability of wetland-based livelihoods. First, is the fragmented management by institutions managing wetlands resources and the challenge on how to link the river basin model to the country‟s decentralised political structure. Second, variance in governance (differences in government jurisdictions) between stakeholders from water and non-water sectors has intensified water scarcity leading to reduced household revenue and environmental degradation. This is markedly pronounced under irrigated agriculture that contributed to reduced revenue target by 50% to 60% and subsequent migration becoming a common practice (fishers 70%: n=120; agro-pastoralists 90%: n= 120). Third, poor linkage between political and sectoral decentralisation is the major driver of gender inequalities particularly with fishery and agro-pastoral communities. Fourth, education and dependency of family labour ranked as key significant variables (chi-square 248.94: p-value < 0.001) in influencing choices of livelihoods across wetlands. This thesis is an outstanding contribution to knowledge as it demonstrates the fact that, decentralisation system in Tanzania (political and sectoral) as a traditional approach for productive resource governance fails to absorb global models such as the river basin under study. Sustainable options for wetland-based livelihoods in Pangani are recommended including iii institutional reforms in linking land and water through co-management from relevant sectors in joint budget planning, revenue collection and cost-benefit sharing. „Managed resources protected area model‟ is proposed to core wetlands such as water sources and catchment areas to ensure protection and conservation of resources. Promoting domestic sources of revenue through investments in technology, human capital and capital formation are fundamental in uplifting socio-economic growth and quality of livelihoods as outlined in the national development vision 2025.

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APA

OLEMAKO, T (2021). Sustainable Options For Wetland-Based Livelihoods: The Case Of Pangani River Basin, Tanzania. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/sustainable-options-for-wetland-based-livelihoods-the-case-of-pangani-river-basin-tanzania

MLA 8th

OLEMAKO, TERESIA "Sustainable Options For Wetland-Based Livelihoods: The Case Of Pangani River Basin, Tanzania" Afribary. Afribary, 14 May. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/sustainable-options-for-wetland-based-livelihoods-the-case-of-pangani-river-basin-tanzania. Accessed 14 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

OLEMAKO, TERESIA . "Sustainable Options For Wetland-Based Livelihoods: The Case Of Pangani River Basin, Tanzania". Afribary, Afribary, 14 May. 2021. Web. 14 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/sustainable-options-for-wetland-based-livelihoods-the-case-of-pangani-river-basin-tanzania >.

Chicago

OLEMAKO, TERESIA . "Sustainable Options For Wetland-Based Livelihoods: The Case Of Pangani River Basin, Tanzania" Afribary (2021). Accessed June 14, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/sustainable-options-for-wetland-based-livelihoods-the-case-of-pangani-river-basin-tanzania