DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, SELENIUM AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GROUNDWATER WITHIN IBADAN METROPOLIS

DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, SELENIUM AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GROUNDWATER WITHIN IBADAN METROPOLIS

ONI TAIWO OLIWAFUNMILAYO


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Ground Water Quality Assessment   1

1.1.1 Significance of Water Quality Assessment1

1.2Groundwater Pollution        2

1.2.1 Sources of Water Pollution5

1.3Effects of Water Pollution        9

1.4Sources of Arsenic, Selenium, Antimony in Groundwater             10

1.4.1 Sources of arsenic in groundwater    10

1.4.2  Sources of selenium (Se) in groundwater   12

1.4.3 Sources of antimony in groundwater           12

1.5 Ground Water Quality in Nigeria: Ibadan As Case Study   14

1.6Aim of the Study    15

1.7Scope of the Study     15

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW      16

2.1 Occurrences of Selenium, Antimony and Arsenic      16

2.1.1 Occurrence of selenium in natural environment     16

2.2.2 Occurrence of Selenium in soils    18

2.2.3 Occurrence of Selenium in Acquatic Environment              20

2.2.3 Occurrence of antimony in natural environment              22

2.2.5 Antimony (Sb) in soil      22

2.2.6 Antimony in aquatic environment              23

2.2.7 Arsenic in natural environment    24

2.2.8 Arsenic in aquatic environment                                                               24

2.2.8 Arsenic in soil              25

2.3Physico-Chemical Parameters in Water      26

2.3.1 Temperature           26

2.3.2 pH                   26

2.3.3 Alkalinity                   27

2.3.4 Dissolved oxygen (DO)         27

2.3.5 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)                                   27

2.3.6 Chemical oxygen demand (COD)            28

2.3.7 Sulphate                     28

2.3.8Chloride            28

2.3.9 Phosphate                    28

2.3.10 Nitrate            29

2.3Inductively Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP/OES)              29

2.4 Assessment of Limit to Arsenic, Selenium and Antimony in Drinking Water                                              29

2.5 Analytical Method in Determining Arsenic, Selenium and Antimony    30

2.5.1 Spectrophotometric methods                                                                 30

2.5.2 Electroanalytical methods      31

2.5.3 Atomic fluorescence              31

2.5.4 Plasmic spectrometric method.                                               32

2.5.5 Chromatographic method      32

2.5.6 Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy method            33

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1Study Location                      34

3.2 Sample Design      34

3.3 Sample Collection      35

3.4 Sample Preservation              35

3.5Sample Preparation              41

3.6Preparation of Reagents      41

3.7  Determination  of Parameters 43

3.9Instrumental Analysis     44

3.10 Quality Assurance Protocol   49

3.11 Determination Of Heavy Metals Using Inductively Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission Spectroscopy( ICP-OES).            50

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1Characterization of the Sample      51

4.2Concentration of Arsenic         57

4.3Concentration of Antimony     58

4.4Concentration of Selenium     58

4.5.Concentration of Total Alkalinity                                                               59

4.6.Concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)     60

4.7.Concentration of Hardness     62

4.8.Concentration of Nitrate          62

4.9.Concentration of pH              62

4.10. Concentration of Phosphate 63

4.11. Concentration of Sulfate.       64

4.12. Concentration of Total dissolved solids TDS            65


CHAPTER FIVE

5.0.CONCLUSION           66

5.1.RECOMMENDATION.             66

REFERENCES                   67

APPENDIX

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APA

ONI, T. (2018). DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, SELENIUM AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GROUNDWATER WITHIN IBADAN METROPOLIS. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/taiwo-project

MLA 8th

ONI, TAIWO "DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, SELENIUM AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GROUNDWATER WITHIN IBADAN METROPOLIS" Afribary. Afribary, 28 Nov. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/taiwo-project. Accessed 13 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

ONI, TAIWO . "DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, SELENIUM AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GROUNDWATER WITHIN IBADAN METROPOLIS". Afribary, Afribary, 28 Nov. 2018. Web. 13 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/taiwo-project >.

Chicago

ONI, TAIWO . "DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, SELENIUM AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GROUNDWATER WITHIN IBADAN METROPOLIS" Afribary (2018). Accessed July 13, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/taiwo-project