Research Papers/Topics in Environmental Chemistry

Compound Parabolic Concentrators for Solar Water Heat Pasteurization: Numerical Simulation

Many people in less developed countries drink water with microbial contamination, which leads to the annual death of 5 million children. Although some people currently boil water, all microbes that cause disease in humans do not survive at temperatures >65oC, which solar water pasteurizers can easily produce. These pasteurizers are similar to box solar cookers, and typically have a small rectangular reflector. The objective of this work is to calculate the increase in output due to compound p...

Viability of Small-Scale Arsenic-Contaminated Water Purification Technologies for Sustainable Development in Pakistan

Drinking arsenic-contaminated water leads to a series of health problems that has limited development for the largely poor rural people of Pakistan who are unable to afford bottled water, centralized treatment plants, or expensive water filter systems. This paper reviews the available appropriate technologies for the removal of arsenic in drinking water to assist in just sustainable development in Pakistan. Several technologies were found to be both technically- and economically- viable and s...

Environmental Impacts of Distributed Manufacturing from 3-D Printing of Polymer Components and Products

Although additive layer manufacturing is well established for rapid prototyping the low throughput and historic costs have prevented mass-scale adoption. The recent development of the RepRap, an open source self-replicating rapid prototyper, has made low-cost 3-D printers readily available to the public at reasonable prices (

Open-Source Photometric System for Enzymatic Nitrate Quantification

Nitrate, the most oxidized form of nitrogen, is regulated to protect people and animals from harmful levels as there is a large over abundance due to anthropogenic factors. Widespread field testing for nitrate could begin to address the nitrate pollution problem, however, the Cadmium Reduction Method, the leading certified method to detect and quantify nitrate, demands the use of a toxic heavy metal. An alternative, the recently proposed Environmental Protection Agency Nitrate Reductase Nitra...

Solar photovoltaic powered on-site ammonia production for nitrogen fertilization

Ammonia synthesis is the most important step for nitrogen-fertilizer production and consumes approximately 1% of the world’s energy production and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to the concomitant emissions caused by ammonia and nitrogen fertilizer synthesis, centrally produced fertilizer that must be distributed to farms also harms the environment because of the embodied energy of transportation. An environmentally-optimal nitrogen fertilizer system would be distribut...

Energy Payback Time of a Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System

The growth of both plastic consumption and prosumer 3-D printing are driving an interest in producing 3-D printer filaments from waste plastic. This study quantifies the embodied energy of a vertical DC solar photovoltaic (PV) powered recyclebot based on life cycle energy analysis and compares it to horizontal AC recyclebots, conventional recycling, and the production of a virgin 3-D printer filament. The energy payback time (EPBT) is calculated using the embodied energy of the materials maki...

DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, SELENIUM AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GROUNDWATER WITHIN IBADAN METROPOLIS

DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, SELENIUM AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GROUNDWATER WITHIN IBADAN METROPOLISONI TAIWO OLIWAFUNMILAYOTABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACTCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONGround Water Quality Assessment   11.1.1 Significance of Water Quality Assessment 11.2 Groundwater Pollution         21.2.1 Sources of Water Pollution 51.3 Effects of Water Pollution         91.4 Sources of Arsenic, Selenium, Antimony in Groundwater  ...

Evaluation of polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Selected Heavy Metals Levels in Water around Zaakpon, Rivers State

                      AbstractPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and physiochemical parameters were measured in water samples from zaakpon community. The results shows that most of the parameters in water were within safe limits except turbidity, potassium and Phosphate while PAHs concentrations in water were below detection limit

Excess lifetime Cancer risk and Radiation Pollution hazard indices in rocks and soil of some selected mining sites in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Radiation exposures from mining and mineral processing industries can lead to high incidence of disease conditions like nausea, lung cancer, sterility, fatigue, and diarrhoea among mineworkers. The concentration of primodial radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) in some selected mining sites in Nasarawa State, Nigeria, was examined in this study. Soil and rock samples from eight different mining sites were collected and analyzed for radionuclides activity concentration by gamma ray spect...

LEACHATE COMPOSITION OF ISALE-IJAGBA AND OKE –DIYA DUMPSITES IN SAGAMU AND THE POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY.

ABSTRACTWhen solid waste is disposed of at landfills, it undergoes a combination of physical, chemical and microbial processes. These processes help to transform the waste into various water-soluble compounds termed (leachate) and transfer the pollutants from the refuse to the percolating water, leading to contamination of surrounding groundwater and surface water. Characterisations of the leachate originating from the Isale-Ijagba and Oke-Diya dumpsites (situated in Sagamu, Ogun State,...

Assessment of Alpha and Beta Radioactivity Pollution of Main Water Supplies in Dutsinma Metropolis

ABSTRACTThe gross alpha and beta radioactivity pollution of main water supplies in Dutsinma metropolis were measured using proportional gas counter. The results show that the gross alpha radioactivity in water samples is lower than the maximum contaminant level of 0.1Bq/L set by World Health Organization (WHO). The measured alpha activities have a minimum of 0.001±0.0.003 and the maximum of 0.146±0.034 Bq/L with mean of 0.029±0.002 Bq/L. The gross beta radioactivity in water sample...

Decolourization of Textile Dye Effluent by Resident Bacterial Species

Textile dye effluents are released into the environment without any pretreatment and pollute water, to prevent contamination of our valuable resources; removal of these pollutants is of great vitality. For this purpose, waste water samples were collected from dye contaminated sites of Kofar Mata dye pits based in Kano State. Certain parameters which include temperature and pH were determined in the Laboratory. The residual bacterial load was found to be in the range of 1.4 x106 - 4.0x106 cfu....

Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling waste: The Need for Pragmatic Change

Executive SummaryOffshore drilling for oil and natural gas have been ongoing since the 1800’s but little emphasis has been placed on the fate of drilling waste acquired during the drilling process. There are three main categories of waste that represent a potential concern based on current disposal practices.  These waste categories are drilling fluids, drill cuttings and produced formation water (PFW). Existing and proposed policies related to the handling and disposal of these wastes...

THE EFFECT OF ABATTOIR EFFLUENT ON PHYSICOCHEMISTRY AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ON KARU RIVER, ABUJA (CASE STUDY: KARU ABATTOIR)

The impact of Sewage and Abattoir effluent discharge into river resulted in water pollution there by reduces it quality.This study aimed at analysing the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of Karu Abattoir effluent and Sewage discharge into Karu River in FCT ,Abuja, Nigeria in order to ascertain the quality and impact on Karu River. Four water samples along with one effluent ample were collected aseptically and subjected to standard microbiological and physicochemical analysis

INDUSTRIAL GREYWATER RECYCLING AND REUSE: A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR MILLIKEN & COMPANY, MIDDLETON

This report is a product of an extensive research project seeking to recycle laundry wash water for Milliken Industrials Limited, Middleton, U.K. Data gathered from meter readings in Milliken Industrial Ltd, Middleton, has constantly indicated the laundry aspect of their manufacturing process as by far, the process that consumes the largest volume of water, thereby resulting in high water utility bills. This singular process contributes significantly to the company‘s operating cost, since a...

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