1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
ORIGIN OF COMPUTER
The earliest type of machine capable of performing some arithmetic operation was designed aid built by Professor Wilhem Schick hand in 1623. A more powerful one was built by a French Scientist, Blaise Rascal in 1642.
In 1671, an improved one was built by a German Mathematical Gottfried Leibniz in the form of a calculation capable of performing multiplication, division, addition and subtraction. The Leibniz machine could be said to be the genesis of modern computer machines.
The first commercial adding machine was built by William S. Burroughs. The built the first commercial adding machine in 1885. In 1890, Herman Holleith built the first data processing machine which used punched lands, which is the fore runner of today’s computer punched cards.
The first Electronic Computer Electronic Numeric Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was made under the supervision of John Mandily and T. Proper Eckert in 1946. In 1945, John Von Neumann developed the principles of modern computer. This was the SORED PROGRAM CONCEPT.
It involves storing both data and instructions in the computer memory. This gave rise to the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EPVAC). Computers such as IBM and Icl were eventually developed.
The emergent of computer application has tremendously given a face lift to the secretarial profession and to a great extent dominates tension, stresses and fatigue that characterized the nature of the profession.
It could be stated that secretaries have at the and arrived in the business spheres in this country in as much as they have realized the nature of their job following the advent of computers. Today secretaries can work for late hours without much stress.
The introduction of computer in some business organization has taken care of the issue of delay in tracing office files and correspondences. The secretary can now trace any given file with ease.
He/she can store information and can equally retrieve such information for necessary corrections at will. Computer application made possible the compression of large volumes of data as is often the case in business organizations, government and industrial establishments into very small space.
The speed of data retrieved has greatly enhanced the effectiveness of decision-making using computers. Under the conventional method whereby large volumes of data are stored in archives, information retrieval takes a long time and often information may be omitted due to the effort spent in retrieved. This normally results either to the substitution of such vital data or its non-inclusion the effect is delay or non-rendering of services requiring such data. It is also necessary to update the files containing important decision-making data as at when due. It is often too costly using out-dated data in decision-making.
With the aid of the computer by the secretary in business organization, file maintenance which include updating, insertion and selection are easily and effectively carried out. The helps in optimal decision making which may be necessary in the survival keen competition from rival organization.
Apart from being used for decision making computers are used in industrial production. They are extensively used in industrial control, powerful, versatile and general purpose. Micro-processors are today used to control various production activities in our industries.
In banks, computers are used to provide accurate data concerning their customers. The individual data of customers. The individual data of customers are quickly and accurately modified as their accounts are either debited or credited.
In airline systems, accurate information on seats availability were kept in computer. As each seat is reserved the information on seat availability is modified. This is normally done using a wide area of network. This no doubt increases profit margin of the business organizations making use of computer system.
It is in the recognition of all these that computer is rapidly funding its way in to every facet of human endeavour. As processing machine, computer is now being used in business by secretaries for effectiveness, efficiency and quality output. The application of computer is now universal in many offices both big and small government or private. Consequent upon this fact, secretaries of today equally see it as a challenge and this makes it imperative for them to be involved in computer training courses. Today, versatile and powerful microprocessors have greatly changed the destiny of human race. It is strongly armed that no nation can develop without extensive and proper application of computers. A close study of the history of development of the industrialized nations revealed that it linked to the wise application of computers. No wonder most business organizations make use of computers in their business activities.
Attempts have been made in this chapter to review books, newspapers, magazines and journals which are related to the impact of computer on secretarial functions.
1.Definition of types and classes of computer
2.The use and how computer usage affects the functions of secretarial staff
3.Advantages and disadvantages of computer
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