The relationship between offspring's 2D:4D ratio and postpartum maternal circulating testosterone, estradiol, and their indices in a Ghanaian population

Objectives: The 2D:4D ratio is influenced by prenatal testosterone (PT) and estrogen (PE) exposure in utero. This study sought to determine whether evidence of Manning's hypothesis can still be observed even in the postpartum period. We hypothesize that the offspring 2D:4D ratios will be inversely correlated with maternal postpartum circulating testosterone but positively correlated with estradiol. Methods: This study was conducted between December 2020 and April 2021 and was cross-sectional in nature. There were 272 mother-offspring pairs; the mothers were aged between 18 and 36 years while the median (IQR) age of their offspring was 111 (44–210) days. Offspring right (2D:4DR) and left (2D:4DL) digit ratios were measured using computer-assisted analysis. Sampling was done at 111 (44–210) days postpartum and blood was analyzed for total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and sex hormone-binding globulins using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results: The 2D:4DR of sons was significantly lower compared to daughters (p = .031). Mothers with sons had significantly increased levels of serum TT (p = .001) while mothers with daughters had significantly increased levels of E2 (p = .000). As hypothesized, the maternal serum free testosterone (FT%) was inversely correlated with their daughters' (r = 0.320, p = .003), and also with their sons' (r = 0.213, p = .047), 2D:4DL. Unexpectedly, daughters' 2D:4DL was inversely correlated with maternal circulating free E2 (r = 0.255, p = .015). Conclusions: In humans, evidence of the relationship between maternal testosterone levels and their offspring's 2D:4D ratio may persist even into the postpartum period.

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APA

Amidu, N & Quaye, L (2023). The relationship between offspring's 2D:4D ratio and postpartum maternal circulating testosterone, estradiol, and their indices in a Ghanaian population. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-relationship-between-offspring-s-2d-4d-ratio-and-postpartum-maternal-circulating-testosterone-estradiol-and-their-indices-in-a-ghanaian-population

MLA 8th

Amidu, Nafiu and Lawrence Quaye "The relationship between offspring's 2D:4D ratio and postpartum maternal circulating testosterone, estradiol, and their indices in a Ghanaian population" Afribary. Afribary, 20 Aug. 2023, https://afribary.com/works/the-relationship-between-offspring-s-2d-4d-ratio-and-postpartum-maternal-circulating-testosterone-estradiol-and-their-indices-in-a-ghanaian-population. Accessed 15 Apr. 2024.

MLA7

Amidu, Nafiu, Lawrence Quaye . "The relationship between offspring's 2D:4D ratio and postpartum maternal circulating testosterone, estradiol, and their indices in a Ghanaian population". Afribary, Afribary, 20 Aug. 2023. Web. 15 Apr. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/the-relationship-between-offspring-s-2d-4d-ratio-and-postpartum-maternal-circulating-testosterone-estradiol-and-their-indices-in-a-ghanaian-population >.

Chicago

Amidu, Nafiu and Quaye, Lawrence . "The relationship between offspring's 2D:4D ratio and postpartum maternal circulating testosterone, estradiol, and their indices in a Ghanaian population" Afribary (2023). Accessed April 15, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/the-relationship-between-offspring-s-2d-4d-ratio-and-postpartum-maternal-circulating-testosterone-estradiol-and-their-indices-in-a-ghanaian-population