Research Papers/Topics in Biology

Is sexual dimorphism in morphometric variables of the proximal femur moderated by age in adulthood? A cross-sectional study in Ghana

Ageing may impact proximal femoral morphometry in both males and females. However, it is not clear whether the observed sexual dimorphism is attributable to an ageing effect in the post-pubertal period. The potential effect of ageing on sexual dimorphism in the proximal femur is most significantly relevant for forensic and osteoarchaeological research. The study was cross-sectional and comprised 123 participants (females = 72 and males = 51), who were recorded between January 2017 and June 20...

Is sexual dimorphism in morphometric variables of the proximal femur moderated by agein adulthood? Across-sectional study in Ghana

Ageing may impact proximal femoral morphometry in both males and females. However, it is not clear whether the observed sexual dimorphism is attributable to an ageing effect in the post-pubertal period. The potential effect of ageing on sexual dimorphism in the proximal femur is most significantly relevant for forensic and osteoarchaeological research. The study was cross-sectional and comprised 123 participants (females = 72 and males = 51), who were recorded between January 2017 and June 20...

Are sex differences in blood cell count and hemoglobin moderated by the 2D:4D ratio? A cross‐sectional study in a Ghanaian population

Background and Aims: There are sex differences in blood cell count and hemoglobin (HGB) in adulthood due to differences in the levels of circulating sex hormones. The second‐to‐fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is the putative marker of prenatal hormone exposure. The 2D:4D or the right‐left difference (Dr‐l) are sexually dimorphic and are correlates of sex hormones in adulthood. The study sought to determine whether sex differences in adult blood cell count and HGB can be partly explained by...

Models for predicting height from percutaneous lengths of the ulna and femur in a Ghanaian population

This study aimed to develop predictive models from percutaneous femoral (PFL) and ulna (PUL) lengths for estimating height among a living Ghanaian population. This was a cross-sectional study involving 99 adults (males=52, females=47) between the ages of 19–31yrs. The height, femoral and ulnar lengths of all participants were measured twice using standard anthropometric methods. Regression predictive equation models were developed based on PFL, PUL, age and the combined PFL+PUL. p < 0.05 wa...

Second to fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio and their relationships among a mother and child population in Ghana

The study aimed to determine the relationship between digit ratios among a mother–child population in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional study from December 2020 to April 2021 involving 272 mothers, their daughters (n= 132) and their sons (n= 140). The right (2D:4DR) and the left (2D:4DL) digit ratios were measured using computer-assisted analysis. The data were analysed in SPSS (v23) and GraphPad Prism (v8) at an alpha value of 0.05. The mean±SD age of the mothers was 23.9 ± 3.67 years wh...

The relationship between 2D:4D ratio and postpartum adult female variables in a Ghanaian population

Objectives: Postpartum hematological and anthropometric assessment is a requirement for optimal maternal and child health. The study aimed to determine the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and postpartum hematological and anthropometric variables in adult females. Methods: The study was cross-sectional from December 2020 to April 2021 involving 272 postpartum adult females, aged between 18 and 36 years. The right (2D:4DR) and the left (2D:4DL) digit ratios were measured using computer-ass...

The relationship between offspring's 2D:4D ratio and postpartum maternal circulating testosterone, estradiol, and their indices in a Ghanaian population

Objectives: The 2D:4D ratio is influenced by prenatal testosterone (PT) and estrogen (PE) exposure in utero. This study sought to determine whether evidence of Manning's hypothesis can still be observed even in the postpartum period. We hypothesize that the offspring 2D:4D ratios will be inversely correlated with maternal postpartum circulating testosterone but positively correlated with estradiol. Methods: This study was conducted between December 2020 and April 2021 and was cross-sectional ...

Sex estimation from the percutaneous lengths of the femur and the ulna in a Ghanaian population using discriminant function analysis

Sex estimation models form a vital part in Forensic human identification but they are usually population-specific. This study aimed to develop and test sex estimation models for a Ghanaian population using percutaneous lengths of the femur (FL) and ulna (UL). The study was cross-sectional from June to July 2020, involving 99 adults (male: 52, females: 47), aged between 19 and 31years. The lengths of the femur and ulna were measured using standard anthropometric techniques. All measurements we...

The association between the 2D:4D ratio and offspring sex at birth: A cross-sectional study in Ghana

Objectives: The 2D:4D ratio is the putative marker of prenatal androgen exposure. Low maternal 2D:4D ratio has been associated with high or male-biased secondary sex ratio. Hitherto, there has not been any study in Ghana regarding the maternal 2D:4D ratio and sex ratio at birth. This study sought to investigate this observation in a Ghanaian population. Method: The study was cross-sectional from December 2020 to April 2021 involving 272 first-time mothers. The mean ± SD age of the mothers wa...

Models for estimating age and sex from variables of the proximal femur in a Ghanaian population

Age and sex estimation models from the proximal femur are population-specific due to genetic and environmental variabilities. Extrapolating a femur-based age or sex estimating model from one population to another will be problematic. Proximal femur-specific age and sex estimation models are limited in Ghana. The study aimed to estimate the age and sex of an adult Ghanaian population using osteometric measurements from the proximal femur. The study was cross-sectional from January to June 2019...

The relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and lateral preference in a Ghanaian population

Prenatal androgen exposure has suggested to be associated with lateral preferences in humans as per the Geschwind-Behan-Galaburda (GBG) theory, the Sexual Differentiation Hypothesis (SDH) and the Callosal Hypothesis (CH). The 2D:4D ratio is the putative marker of prenatal androgen exposure. The study aimed to determine the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and lateral preferences. The study was cross-sectional from May to June 2021 that involved 206 participants (females = 112, males = 94)...

Sex estimation accuracies from variables of the index and ring fingers in a Ghanaian population: Absolute lengths versus length ratios

There are variabilities in the sex and height estimation accuracies using variables of the index and ring fingers. This study sought to compare the performance of the absolute length and the length ratio variables of the index and ring fingers in sex and height estimation. The study was cross-sectional from January to June 2021 at the University for Development Studies. The participants were 216 (males=96, females=120) between 18 and 32 years. The index (IF), the ring (RF) finger lengths and ...

Sex and height estimation using percutaneous ulna and tibia length in a Ghanaian population: New data and a test of published equations

Whether one population-specific model for sex and height estimation can be extrapolated to another population has been a source of controversy. This study sought to develop and compare models for sex and height estimation from the percutaneous lengths of the ulna and tibia in a Ghanaian population. The study was cross-sectional from January to June 2021 at the University for Development Studies, Tamale. There were 191 (male=89, female=102) participants between 18 and 30 years of age. The stan...

Study on Semen Quality among Men Seeking Infertility Treatment in Tamale, Ghana

Background: Standard semen analysis is the surrogate measure of male fertility in clinical practice. According to recent studies, there is a slight increase in percentage of couples who are facing infertility problems globally. This study determined the semen quality trends of men seeking infertility treatment in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study with data from archival records over a period of six years; from January 2015 to December 2020. R...

The 2D:4D Ratio and Sex Difference in Circulating Liver Enzymes in Adulthood: A Cross-sectional Study in Ghana

Aims: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and the right-left difference (Dr-l) are the putative markers of prenatal hormone exposure. These digit ratios are sexually dimorphic and are said to be positive and negative correlates, respectively, of circulating testosterone and estrogen in adulthood. There is also a sex difference in liver function in adulthood which may be due to sex differences in plasma liver enzyme activity or concentration. The observed sex difference in liver function...


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